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  • CLASSES

    Direct Renin Inhibitors

    BOXED WARNING

    Pregnancy

     Aliskiren can cause fetal harm if administered to a pregnant woman. Once pregnancy is detected, discontinue aliskiren as soon as possible. Women of child-bearing age should be made aware of the potential risk to the fetus, and aliskiren should only be given after careful counseling and consideration of individual risks and benefits. The use of drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Other potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, and hypotension. An observational study based on Tennessee Medicaid data reported that the risk of congenital malformations is significantly increased during first-trimester exposure to ACE inhibitors. However, a much larger observational study (n = 465,754) found that the risk of birth defects was similar in infants exposed to ACE inhibitors during the first trimester, in infants exposed to other antihypertensives during the first trimester, and in those whose mothers were hypertensive but were not treated. Infants born to mothers with hypertension, either treated or untreated, had a higher risk of birth defects than those born to mothers without hypertension. The authors concluded that the presence of hypertension likely contributed to the development of birth defects rather than the use of medications. In rare cases when another antihypertensive agent cannot be used to treat a pregnant patient, serial ultrasound examinations should be performed to assess the intraamniotic environment. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue aliskiren unless it is considered life-saving for the mother. It should be noted that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe newborns with histories of in utero exposure to aliskiren for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia. If oliguria or hypotension occurs, blood pressure and renal perfusion support may be required, as well as exchange transfusion or dialysis to reverse hypotension and/or support decreased renal function.

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Direct renin inhibitor
    Used for hypertension
    Black box warning for pregnancy

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Tekturna

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Aliskiren/Aliskiren Hemifumarate/Tekturna Oral Tab: 150mg, 300mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the treatment of hypertension either as monotherapy or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    Initially, 150 mg PO once daily. The dose may be increased to 300 mg PO once daily if blood pressure is not adequately controlled. Doses greater than 300 mg/day have been studied, but the incidence of diarrhea is increased without an increase in blood pressure response. By 2 weeks, 85% to 90% of the antihypertensive effects of a given dose are achieved.

    Children and Adolescents 6 to 17 years weighing 50 kg or more

    Initially, 150 mg PO once daily. The dose may be increased to 300 mg PO once daily if blood pressure is not adequately controlled. Doses greater than 300 mg/day have been studied, but the incidence of diarrhea is increased without an increase in blood pressure response. By 2 weeks, 85% to 90% of the antihypertensive effects of a given dose are achieved.

    Children and Adolescents 6 to 17 years weighing 20 kg to 49 kg

    Initially, 75 mg PO once daily. The dose may be increased to 150 mg PO once daily if blood pressure not adequately controlled. In clinical trials, aliskiren was shown to be safe and effective in this patient population; however, the pellets, which allow for a dose of 75 mg, have been discontinued by the manufacturer.

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    300 mg/day PO.

    Geriatric

    300 mg/day PO.

    Adolescents

    Weighing 50 kg or more: 300 mg/day PO
    Weighing 20 kg to 49 kg: 150 mg/day PO

    Children

    6 to 12 years weighing 50 kg or more: 300 mg/day PO.
    6 to 12 years weighing 20 kg to 49 kg: 150 mg/day PO. Not indicated; lack of appropriate dosage form available.
    2 to 5 years: Not recommended
    Younger than 2 years: Contraindicated.

    Infants

    Contraindicated.

    Neonates

    Contraindicated.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Specific guidelines for dosage adjustments in patients with hepatic impairment are not available; it appears that no dosage adjustments are needed.

    Renal Impairment

    Specific guidelines for dosage adjustments in patients with renal impairment are not available; it appears that no dosage adjustments are needed. Safety and effectiveness have not been established in patients with severe renal impairment defined as a CrCl less than 30 mL/min as this population was excluded from efficacy trials.
     
    Intermittent hemodialysis
    No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration

    May be given with or without food. However, should be administered consistently with regards to meals; high fat meals can significantly decrease drug absorption and may alter the clinical efficacy.

    STORAGE

    Tekturna:
    - Dispense in original container or USP equivalent tight container
    - Protect from moisture
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    ACE-inhibitor induced angioedema, angioedema, Black patients, hereditary angioedema, surgery

    Following administration of aliskiren, angioedema of the face, extremities, lips, tongue, glottis, and/or larynx has been reported. This may occur at any time during treatment. It is unknown if the occurrence of angioedema is higher in Black patients compared to other demographic subgroups, as has been reported with the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Black patients do, however, experience a slightly smaller reduction in blood pressure as compared to other subgroups, a trend that is consistent with experience in ACE inhibitor and angiotensin receptor antagonists therapy. If angioedema occurs, aliskiren should be promptly discontinued and appropriate therapy and monitoring provided until complete and sustained resolution of signs and symptoms has occurred. Patients may require prolonged observation even with minor reactions where only swelling of the tongue is initially seen, without respiratory complications. In these patients, treatment with antihistamines and corticosteroids may not be sufficient to prevent respiratory involvement. Experience with ACE-inhibitors shows that rare fatalities can occur in patients with angioedema associated with laryngeal edema or tongue edema secondary to ACE inhibitors administration. Patients with involvement of the tongue, glottis, or larynx, and especially a history of airway surgery are more likely to experience airway obstruction. ACE-inhibitors are contraindicated in patients with a history of ACE-inhibitor induced angioedema, hereditary angioedema, or idiopathic angioedema, similar precautions should be observed when administering aliskiren.

    Myocardial infarction

    The addition of aliskiren to optimal medical therapy (i.e., antiplatelets, statins, beta-blockers, and either an ACE inhibitor or an angiotensin-receptor blocker) may not improve outcomes in patients who have had a myocardial infarction accompanied by left ventricular dysfunction, and its use may be associated with increased adverse events in this population. The Aliskiren Study in Post-MI Patients to Reduce Remodeling (ASPIRE) was an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial consisting of 820 patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Patients were stabilized on optimal medical therapy for at least two weeks, then randomized to placebo or aliskiren 75 mg/day PO and titrated up to 300 mg daily within two weeks. After 36 weeks, left ventricular end-systolic volume was not significantly reduced in the aliskiren group compared to placebo. Also, there was no significant difference in the ejection fraction or the end-diastolic volume. Additionally, the incidence of low potassium concentrations, low blood pressure, and kidney dysfunction was higher in patients receiving aliskiren compared to placebo.

    Aortic stenosis, cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, hyponatremia, hypotension, hypovolemia

    Aliskiren should be used with caution in patients who exhibit hypotension. A transient hypotensive response is not a contraindication to further treatment, and the drug can usually be continued without difficulty once the blood pressure has stabilized. Rarely (0.1%), an excessive fall in blood pressure was observed in patients with uncomplicated hypertension treated with aliskiren. When aliskiren was combined with other antihypertensive agents, the occurrence of hypotension was only slightly increased (< 1%). Hypotension is more likely to occur if aliskiren is administered to patients with preexisting hypovolemia or hyponatremia or with combined use of aliskiren and other agents acting on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Hypotension may aggravate ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease or cerebrovascular disease precipitating a myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident. Aliskiren should be used with caution in patients with aortic stenosis or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Heart failure, renal artery stenosis, renal failure, renal impairment

    Monitor renal function periodically in patients treated with aliskiren. The safety and effectiveness of aliskiren have not been established in patients with severe renal impairment or renal failure (CrCl less than 30 mL/minute); these patients were excluded from clinical trials. Avoid the use of aliskiren in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) or angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with moderate renal impairment (GFR less than 60 mL/minute). Patients whose renal function may depend in part on the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (e.g., patients with renal artery stenosis, severe heart failure, post-myocardial infarction or volume depletion) or patients receiving ARBs, ACE inhibitors, or NSAIDs may be at particular risk for developing acute renal failure on aliskiren. Consider holding or discontinuing therapy in patients who develop a clinically significant reduction in renal function while receiving aliskiren.

    Hyperkalemia, hypokalemia

    Patients with pre-existing hyperkalemia or hypokalemia should have their electrolyte imbalances corrected before aliskiren is initiated. Hyperkalemia may be associated with serious cardiac arrhythmias; monitor serum potassium periodically in all patients receiving aliskiren. Risk factors for the development of hyperkalemia include renal insufficiency, diabetes, and the concomitant use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors), angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs), NSAIDs, potassium-sparing diuretics, potassium supplements, and/or potassium-containing salt substitutes. Increases in serum potassium > 5.5 mEq/L were infrequent with aliskiren alone (0.9%, compared to 0.6% with placebo). However, when aliskiren was administered to patients with diabetes and renal disease receiving an ACE inhibitor or an ARB, the incidence of hyperkalemia was 36.9% compared to 27.1% in the placebo group. Hyperkalemia resulting in a serious adverse event was also reported more frequently in the aliskiren group compared to placebo (1.1% vs. 0.3%, respectively). 

    Biliary cirrhosis, hepatic disease

    Limited data are available regarding the use of aliskiren in patients with hepatic disease. In pharmacokinetic analysis, no significant differences were seen among patients with mild to severe hepatic impairment. Consequently, the manufacturer does not recommend adjustment in the initial dosing of aliskiren for this population. However, because hepatobiliary excretion seems to be prominent in the elimination of aliskiren, clinicians should observe caution when prescribing aliskiren in patients with biliary cirrhosis or Child-Pugh class B or C until further data become available.

    Diabetes mellitus

    Aliskiren is contraindicated in patients with diabetes mellitus who are receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) or angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs). In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of renal impairment (14.5% vs. 12.4%), hypotension (19.9% vs. 16.3%), and hyperkalemia (38.9% vs. 28.8%) compared to placebo. These adverse events were also reported as serious adverse events more frequently in aliskiren-treated patients compared to placebo: renal impairment (5.7% vs. 4.3%), hypotension (2.3% vs. 1.9%), and hyperkalemia (1% vs. 0.5%). The risk of stroke (3.4% vs. 2.7%) and death (8.4% vs. 8%) were numerically higher in aliskiren-treated patients. The manufacturer has instructed healthcare professionals to discontinue aliskiren in patients with diabetes who are also receiving an ACE inhibitor or an ARB and to consider alternative antihypertensive treatment as necessary.

    Children, infants, neonates

    Aliskiren is contraindicated in neonates, infants, and children less than 2 years due to the risk of elevated aliskiren exposures. There is limited information on the metabolism of and exposure to aliskiren in children 2 to less than 6 years of age or in children 6 years of age and older weighing less than 20 kg; thus, aliskiren therapy should be avoided in these patients. In studies involving juvenile animals, higher aliskiren exposures were observed due to the immaturity of metabolizing enzymes and aliskiren transporters. Because of these findings, aliskiren is contraindicated in children less than 2 years. No data is available on the use of aliskiren in pediatric patients with a glomerular filtration rate less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2.

    Pregnancy

     Aliskiren can cause fetal harm if administered to a pregnant woman. Once pregnancy is detected, discontinue aliskiren as soon as possible. Women of child-bearing age should be made aware of the potential risk to the fetus, and aliskiren should only be given after careful counseling and consideration of individual risks and benefits. The use of drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Other potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, and hypotension. An observational study based on Tennessee Medicaid data reported that the risk of congenital malformations is significantly increased during first-trimester exposure to ACE inhibitors. However, a much larger observational study (n = 465,754) found that the risk of birth defects was similar in infants exposed to ACE inhibitors during the first trimester, in infants exposed to other antihypertensives during the first trimester, and in those whose mothers were hypertensive but were not treated. Infants born to mothers with hypertension, either treated or untreated, had a higher risk of birth defects than those born to mothers without hypertension. The authors concluded that the presence of hypertension likely contributed to the development of birth defects rather than the use of medications. In rare cases when another antihypertensive agent cannot be used to treat a pregnant patient, serial ultrasound examinations should be performed to assess the intraamniotic environment. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue aliskiren unless it is considered life-saving for the mother. It should be noted that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe newborns with histories of in utero exposure to aliskiren for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia. If oliguria or hypotension occurs, blood pressure and renal perfusion support may be required, as well as exchange transfusion or dialysis to reverse hypotension and/or support decreased renal function.

    Breast-feeding

    There are no data to determine if aliskiren excretion into human milk, the effects on the breast-fed infant, or the effects on milk production. Because of the potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, breast-feeding is not recommended during aliskiren treatment. The molecular weight, long elimination half-life, and moderate plasma protein binding may allow excretion of aliskiren into breast milk; however, the low lipid solubility should limit the amount excreted. The ACE inhibitors captopril and enalapril are usually considered compatible with breast-feeding and may represent preferable alternatives in some patients. In addition, benazepril and quinapril are excreted in human breast milk in very small quantities ; therefore, a clinically significant risk to a breast-feeding infant is not expected.

    Geriatric

    Greater sensitivity to the hypotensive effects of aliskiren is possible in patients who may have reduced renal function, such as the geriatric patient. In clinical evaluation, blood pressure responses and adverse events were similar in the 1,275 (19%) geriatric patients 65 years or older and in the 231 (3.4%) elderly patients 75 years or older as compared to younger adults. Monitor renal function and serum potassium. The federal Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) regulates medication use in residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs). According to OBRA, antihypertensive regimens should be individualized to achieve the desired outcome while minimizing adverse effects. Antihypertensives may cause dizziness, postural hypotension, fatigue, and there is an increased risk for falls. There are many drug interactions that can potentiate the effects of antihypertensives. Some agents require a gradual taper to avoid adverse consequences caused by abrupt discontinuation.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    seizures / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hyperkalemia / Delayed / 0.9-0.9
    angioedema / Rapid / Incidence not known
    Stevens-Johnson syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
    toxic epidermal necrolysis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    teratogenesis / Delayed / Incidence not known
    renal failure (unspecified) / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    hyperuricemia / Delayed / 0.4-0.4
    gout / Delayed / 0.2-0.2
    nephrolithiasis / Delayed / 0.2-0.2
    hypotension / Rapid / 0.1-0.1
    anemia / Delayed / 0.1-0.1
    peripheral edema / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    diarrhea / Early / 2.3-2.3
    cough / Delayed / 1.1-1.1
    rash / Early / 1.0-1.0
    fatigue / Early / 1.0
    headache / Early / 1.0
    dizziness / Early / 1.0
    pharyngitis / Delayed / 1.0
    infection / Delayed / 1.0
    back pain / Delayed / 1.0

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Aliskiren; Valsartan: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Amiloride: (Moderate) Due to the risk of hyperkalemia, drugs that increase serum potassium concentration, such as potassium-sparing diuretics, should be used cautiously in patients taking aliskiren. Electrolytes should be routinely monitored in patients receiving aliskiren. Aliskiren can enhance the effects of diuretics on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Also, patients with hyponatremia or hypovolemia may become hypotensive and/or develop reversible renal insufficiency when given aliskiren and diuretics.
    Amiloride; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Due to the risk of hyperkalemia, drugs that increase serum potassium concentration, such as potassium-sparing diuretics, should be used cautiously in patients taking aliskiren. Electrolytes should be routinely monitored in patients receiving aliskiren. Aliskiren can enhance the effects of diuretics on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Also, patients with hyponatremia or hypovolemia may become hypotensive and/or develop reversible renal insufficiency when given aliskiren and diuretics.
    Amlodipine; Atorvastatin: (Moderate) Coadministration of atorvastatin resulted in an approximate 50% increase in aliskiren Cmax and AUC after multiple doses; the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin were not affected. Monitor blood pressure in patients taking both of these medications.
    Amlodipine; Benazepril: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Amlodipine; Celecoxib: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Amlodipine; Olmesartan: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Amlodipine; Valsartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Amobarbital: (Moderate) Concurrent use of amobarbital with antihypertensive agents may lead to hypotension. Monitor for decreases in blood pressure during times of coadministration.
    Angiotensin II receptor antagonists: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Apomorphine: (Moderate) Use of aliskiren and apomorphine together can increase the hypotensive effects of apomorphine. Monitor blood pressure regularly during use of this combination.
    Apraclonidine: (Minor) Alpha blockers as a class may reduce heart rate and blood pressure. While no specific drug interactions have been identified with systemic agents and apraclonidine during clinical trials, it is theoretically possible that additive blood pressure reductions could occur when apraclonidine is combined with the use of antihypertensive agents. Patients using cardiovascular drugs concomitantly with apraclonidine should have their pulse and blood pressure monitored periodically.
    Aprepitant, Fosaprepitant: (Moderate) Use caution if aliskiren and aprepitant, fosaprepitant are used concurrently and monitor for an increase in aliskiren-related adverse effects for several days after administration of a multi-day aprepitant regimen. Aliskiren is a CYP3A4 substrate. Aprepitant, when administered as a 3-day oral regimen (125 mg/80 mg/80 mg), is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor and inducer and may increase plasma concentrations of aliskiren. For example, a 5-day oral aprepitant regimen increased the AUC of another CYP3A4 substrate, midazolam (single dose), by 2.3-fold on day 1 and by 3.3-fold on day 5. After a 3-day oral aprepitant regimen, the AUC of midazolam (given on days 1, 4, 8, and 15) increased by 25% on day 4, and then decreased by 19% and 4% on days 8 and 15, respectively. As a single 125 mg or 40 mg oral dose, the inhibitory effect of aprepitant on CYP3A4 is weak, with the AUC of midazolam increased by 1.5-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively. After administration, fosaprepitant is rapidly converted to aprepitant and shares many of the same drug interactions. However, as a single 150 mg intravenous dose, fosaprepitant only weakly inhibits CYP3A4 for a duration of 2 days; there is no evidence of CYP3A4 induction. Fosaprepitant 150 mg IV as a single dose increased the AUC of midazolam (given on days 1 and 4) by approximately 1.8-fold on day 1; there was no effect on day 4. Less than a 2-fold increase in the midazolam AUC is not considered clinically important.
    Articaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Antihypertensives, including aliskiren, antagonize the vasopressor effects of parenteral epinephrine.
    Asenapine: (Moderate) Secondary to alpha-blockade, asenapine can produce vasodilation that may result in additive effects during concurrent use of antihypertensive agents. The potential reduction in blood pressure can precipitate orthostatic hypotension and associated dizziness, tachycardia, and syncope. If concurrent use of asenapine and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Atazanavir: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of aliskiren may be elevated when administered concurrently with atazanavir. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as decreased blood pressure, is recommended during coadministration. Atazanavir is a CYP3A4 inhibitor. Aliskiren is a substrate of CYP3A4.
    Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of aliskiren may be elevated when administered concurrently with atazanavir. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as decreased blood pressure, is recommended during coadministration. Atazanavir is a CYP3A4 inhibitor. Aliskiren is a substrate of CYP3A4. (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of aliskiren may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as decreased blood pressure, is recommended during coadministration. Cobicistat is a CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and aliskiren is a CYP3A4 and P-gp substrate.
    Atorvastatin: (Moderate) Coadministration of atorvastatin resulted in an approximate 50% increase in aliskiren Cmax and AUC after multiple doses; the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin were not affected. Monitor blood pressure in patients taking both of these medications.
    Atorvastatin; Ezetimibe: (Moderate) Coadministration of atorvastatin resulted in an approximate 50% increase in aliskiren Cmax and AUC after multiple doses; the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin were not affected. Monitor blood pressure in patients taking both of these medications.
    Azilsartan: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Azilsartan; Chlorthalidone: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Benazepril: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Benazepril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Boceprevir: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering aliskiren with boceprevir due to an increased potential for aliskiren-related adverse events. If aliskiren dose adjustments are made, re-adjust the dose upon completion of boceprevir treatment. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions about the interaction can be made based on the metabolic pathway of aliskiren. Aliskiren is metabolized by the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; boceprevir inhibits this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in elevated aliskiren plasma concentrations.
    Bumetanide: (Moderate) Aliskiren can enhance the effects of loop-diuretics on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Patients with hyponatremia or hypovolemia may also develop reversible renal insufficiency. When aliskiren is administered in combination with furosemide, the AUC and Cmax of furosemide are reduced by approximately 30% and 50%, respectively; the pharmacokinetics of aliskiren are not affected. Patients should be monitored for loss of effect of furosemide when aliskiren is initiated. Blood pressure and electrolytes should be routinely monitored.
    Bupivacaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Antihypertensives, including aliskiren, antagonize the vasopressor effects of parenteral epinephrine.
    Bupivacaine; Meloxicam: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Cabergoline: (Moderate) Cabergoline should be used cautiously with antihypertensive agents, including aliskiren. Cabergoline has been associated with hypotension in some instances. Initial doses of cabergoline higher than 1 mg may produce orthostatic hypotension. It may be advisable to monitor blood pressure.
    Candesartan: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Candesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Captopril: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Captopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Cariprazine: (Moderate) Orthostatic vital signs should be monitored in patients who are at risk for hypotension, such as those receiving cariprazine in combination with antihypertensive agents. Atypical antipsychotics may cause orthostatic hypotension and syncope, most commonly during treatment initiation and dosage increases. Patients should be informed about measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning, or rising slowly from a seated position. Consider a cariprazine dose reduction if hypotension occurs.
    Celecoxib: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Celecoxib; Tramadol: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Chlorpheniramine; Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Ciprofloxacin: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of aliskiren may be elevated when administered concurrently with ciprofloxacin. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as decreased blood pressure, is recommended during coadministration. Ciprofloxacin is a CYP3A4 inhibitor and aliskiren is a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Citric Acid; Potassium Citrate; Sodium Citrate: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and aliskiren are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Cobicistat: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of aliskiren may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as decreased blood pressure, is recommended during coadministration. Cobicistat is a CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and aliskiren is a CYP3A4 and P-gp substrate.
    Co-Enzyme Q10, Ubiquinone: (Moderate) Co-enzyme Q10, ubiquinone (CoQ10) may lower blood pressure. CoQ10 use in combination with antihypertensive agents may lead to additional reductions in blood pressure in some individuals. Patients who choose to take CoQ10 concurrently with antihypertensive medications should receive periodic blood pressure monitoring. Patients should be advised to inform their prescriber of their use of CoQ10.
    Cyclosporine: (Major) Concomitant use of aliskiren with cyclosporine is not recommended because of significantly increased aliskiren blood concentrations and an increase in the number and/or intensity of adverse events such as headache, hot flushes, nausea, vomiting, and somnolence. Cyclosporine is an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Aliskiren is a substrate of CYP3A4 and P-gp. As compared with aliskiren monotherapy, the maximum serum concentration (Cmax) of aliskiren was increased approximately 2.5-fold, and the systemic exposure was increased approximately 4.3-fold after a single 75 mg dose was given with a single cyclosporine 200 mg dose to healthy patients. Also, as compared with aliskiren receipt alone, prolongation of the median aliskiren elimination half-life (43 to 45 hours versus 26 hours) and the time to the maximum serum concentration (1.5 to 2 hours versus 0.5 hours) were noted. The mean systemic exposure and Cmax of cyclosporine were comparable to reported literature values.
    Daclatasvir: (Moderate) Systemic exposure of aliskiren, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with daclatasvir, a P-gp inhibitor. Taking these drugs together could increase or prolong the therapeutic effects of aliskiren; monitor patients for potential adverse effects.
    Darunavir: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of aliskiren may be elevated when administered concurrently with darunavir. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as decreased blood pressure, is recommended during coadministration. Darunavir is a CYP3A4 inhibitor. Aliskiren is a substrate of CYP3A4.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of aliskiren may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as decreased blood pressure, is recommended during coadministration. Cobicistat is a CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and aliskiren is a CYP3A4 and P-gp substrate. (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of aliskiren may be elevated when administered concurrently with darunavir. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as decreased blood pressure, is recommended during coadministration. Darunavir is a CYP3A4 inhibitor. Aliskiren is a substrate of CYP3A4.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of aliskiren may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as decreased blood pressure, is recommended during coadministration. Cobicistat is a CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and aliskiren is a CYP3A4 and P-gp substrate. (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of aliskiren may be elevated when administered concurrently with darunavir. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as decreased blood pressure, is recommended during coadministration. Darunavir is a CYP3A4 inhibitor. Aliskiren is a substrate of CYP3A4.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of aliskiren may be elevated when administered concurrently with ritonavir. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as decreased blood pressure, is recommended during coadministration. Ritonavir is an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Aliskiren is a substrate of both CYP3A4 and P-gp.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and aliskiren are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Diazoxide: (Moderate) Aliskiren can enhance the effects of vasodilators on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Blood pressure and electrolytes should be routinely monitored in patients receiving aliskiren.
    Diclofenac: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Diclofenac; Misoprostol: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Diflunisal: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Diphenhydramine; Naproxen: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Dronedarone: (Moderate) Dronedarone is metabolized by and is an inhibitor of CYP3A. Aliskiren is a substrate for CYP3A4. The concomitant administration of dronedarone and CYP3A substrates may result in increased exposure of the substrate and should, therefore, be undertaken with caution.
    Drospirenone: (Moderate) Drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects and may increase serum potassium, therefore concurrent use of aliskiren may increase the risk of hyperkalemia, especially in the presence of renal impairment. Monitor serum potassium during the 1st month of drospirenone treatment if aliskiren is used concurrently and thereafter as clinically indicated. Also monitor for any changes in blood pressure, fluid retention, or renal function.
    Drospirenone; Estetrol: (Moderate) Drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects and may increase serum potassium, therefore concurrent use of aliskiren may increase the risk of hyperkalemia, especially in the presence of renal impairment. Monitor serum potassium during the 1st month of drospirenone treatment if aliskiren is used concurrently and thereafter as clinically indicated. Also monitor for any changes in blood pressure, fluid retention, or renal function.
    Drospirenone; Estradiol: (Moderate) Drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects and may increase serum potassium, therefore concurrent use of aliskiren may increase the risk of hyperkalemia, especially in the presence of renal impairment. Monitor serum potassium during the 1st month of drospirenone treatment if aliskiren is used concurrently and thereafter as clinically indicated. Also monitor for any changes in blood pressure, fluid retention, or renal function.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Moderate) Drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects and may increase serum potassium, therefore concurrent use of aliskiren may increase the risk of hyperkalemia, especially in the presence of renal impairment. Monitor serum potassium during the 1st month of drospirenone treatment if aliskiren is used concurrently and thereafter as clinically indicated. Also monitor for any changes in blood pressure, fluid retention, or renal function.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Levomefolate: (Moderate) Drospirenone has antimineralocorticoid effects and may increase serum potassium, therefore concurrent use of aliskiren may increase the risk of hyperkalemia, especially in the presence of renal impairment. Monitor serum potassium during the 1st month of drospirenone treatment if aliskiren is used concurrently and thereafter as clinically indicated. Also monitor for any changes in blood pressure, fluid retention, or renal function.
    Duloxetine: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of aliskiren may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as decreased blood pressure, is recommended during coadministration. Cobicistat is a CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and aliskiren is a CYP3A4 and P-gp substrate.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of aliskiren may be elevated when administered concurrently with cobicistat. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as decreased blood pressure, is recommended during coadministration. Cobicistat is a CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor and aliskiren is a CYP3A4 and P-gp substrate.
    Enalapril, Enalaprilat: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Enalapril; Felodipine: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Enalapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Enflurane: (Moderate) General anesthtics may be associated with hypotension; however the frequency is less than with inhalational anesthetic agents. Concomitant use with aliskiren may increase the risk of developing hypotension.
    Epinephrine: (Moderate) Antihypertensives, including aliskiren, antagonize the vasopressor effects of parenteral epinephrine.
    Epoprostenol: (Moderate) Aliskiren can enhance the effects of epoprostenol on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Blood pressure and electrolytes should be routinely monitored in patients receiving aliskiren.
    Eprosartan: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Eprosartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Ethacrynic Acid: (Moderate) Aliskiren can enhance the effects of loop-diuretics on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Patients with hyponatremia or hypovolemia may also develop reversible renal insufficiency. When aliskiren is administered in combination with furosemide, the AUC and Cmax of furosemide are reduced by approximately 30% and 50%, respectively; the pharmacokinetics of aliskiren are not affected. Patients should be monitored for loss of effect of furosemide when aliskiren is initiated. Blood pressure and electrolytes should be routinely monitored.
    Etodolac: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Etomidate: (Moderate) General anesthtics may be associated with hypotension; however the frequency is less than with inhalational anesthetic agents. Concomitant use with aliskiren may increase the risk of developing hypotension.
    Famotidine; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Fenoldopam: (Moderate) Aliskiren can enhance the effects of vasodilators on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Blood pressure and electrolytes should be routinely monitored in patients receiving aliskiren.
    Fenoprofen: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Flurbiprofen: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Fosamprenavir: (Moderate) Caution is advised when administering aliskiren with fosamprenavir, as concurrent use may alter the plasma concentrations of aliskiren. Aliskiren is a substrate for the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4 and the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Amprenavir, the active metabolite of fosamprenavir, is an inducer of P-gp and a potent inhibitor and moderate inducer of CYP3A4.
    Fosinopril: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Fosinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Fospropofol: (Moderate) General anesthtics may be associated with hypotension; however the frequency is less than with inhalational anesthetic agents. Concomitant use with aliskiren may increase the risk of developing hypotension.
    Fostamatinib: (Moderate) Monitor for aliskiren toxicities that may require aliskiren dose reduction (i.e., decreased blood pressure) if given concurrently with fostamatinib. Concomitant use of fostamatinib with a P-gp substrate may increase the concentration of the P-gp substrate. Fostamatinib is a P-gp inhibitor; aliskiren is a substrate for P-gp. Coadministration of fostamatinib with another P-gp substrate increased the substrate AUC by 37% and Cmax by 70%.
    Furosemide: (Moderate) Aliskiren can enhance the effects of loop-diuretics on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Patients with hyponatremia or hypovolemia may also develop reversible renal insufficiency. When aliskiren is administered in combination with furosemide, the AUC and Cmax of furosemide are reduced by approximately 30% and 50%, respectively; the pharmacokinetics of aliskiren are not affected. Patients should be monitored for loss of effect of furosemide when aliskiren is initiated. Blood pressure and electrolytes should be routinely monitored.
    General anesthetics: (Moderate) General anesthtics may be associated with hypotension; however the frequency is less than with inhalational anesthetic agents. Concomitant use with aliskiren may increase the risk of developing hypotension.
    Glecaprevir; Pibrentasvir: (Moderate) Caution is advised with the coadministration of glecaprevir and aliskiren as coadministration may increase serum concentrations of aliskiren and increase the risk of adverse effects. Aliskiren is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp); glecaprevir is a P-gp inhibitor. (Moderate) Caution is advised with the coadministration of pibrentasvir and aliskiren as coadministration may increase serum concentrations of aliskiren and increase the risk of adverse effects. Aliskiren is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp); pibrentasvir is a P-gp inhibitor.
    Guaifenesin; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and aliskiren are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Halothane: (Moderate) General anesthtics may be associated with hypotension; however the frequency is less than with inhalational anesthetic agents. Concomitant use with aliskiren may increase the risk of developing hypotension.
    Hetastarch; Dextrose; Electrolytes: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and aliskiren are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Hydralazine: (Moderate) Aliskiren can enhance the effects of vasodilators on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Blood pressure and electrolytes should be routinely monitored in patients receiving aliskiren.
    Hydralazine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Aliskiren can enhance the effects of vasodilators on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Blood pressure and electrolytes should be routinely monitored in patients receiving aliskiren.
    Hydralazine; Isosorbide Dinitrate, ISDN: (Moderate) Aliskiren can enhance the effects of vasodilators on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Blood pressure and electrolytes should be routinely monitored in patients receiving aliskiren.
    Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ; Moexipril: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and aliskiren are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and aliskiren are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Ibritumomab Tiuxetan: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and aliskiren are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Ibuprofen: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Ibuprofen; Oxycodone: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Idelalisib: (Contraindicated) Avoid concomitant use of idelalisib, a strong CYP3A inhibitor, with aliskiren, a CYP3A substrate, as aliskiren toxicities may be significantly increased. The AUC of a sensitive CYP3A substrate was increased 5.4-fold when coadministered with idelalisib.
    Iloperidone: (Moderate) Secondary to alpha-blockade, iloperidone can produce vasodilation that may result in additive effects during concurrent use with antihypertensive agents. The potential reduction in blood pressure can precipitate orthostatic hypotension and associated dizziness, tachycardia, and syncope. If concurrent use of iloperidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Iloprost: (Moderate) Aliskiren can enhance the effects of iloprost on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Blood pressure and electrolytes should be routinely monitored in patients receiving aliskiren.
    Indapamide: (Moderate) Aliskiren can enhance the effects of indapamide on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Of note, patients with hyponatremia or hypovolemia may also develop reversible renal insufficiency when given aliskiren and diuretics concomitantly. Blood pressure and electrolytes should be routinely monitored in patients receiving aliskiren.
    Indomethacin: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Iodine; Potassium Iodide, KI: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and aliskiren are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Irbesartan: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Irbesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Isavuconazonium: (Moderate) Concomitant use of isavuconazonium with aliskiren may result in increased serum concentrations of aliskiren. Aliskiren is a substrate of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; isavuconazole, the active moiety of isavuconazonium, is a moderate inhibitor of this enzyme. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are used together.
    Isoflurane: (Moderate) General anesthtics may be associated with hypotension; however the frequency is less than with inhalational anesthetic agents. Concomitant use with aliskiren may increase the risk of developing hypotension.
    Itraconazole: (Major) Avoid use of aliskiren during and for 2 weeks after discontinuation of itraconazole treatment due to increased aliskiren exposure. Coadministration of 100 mg itraconazole with 150 mg aliskiren resulted in an approximate 5.8-fold increase in Cmax and 6.5-fold increase in AUC of aliskiren.
    Ketamine: (Moderate) General anesthtics may be associated with hypotension; however the frequency is less than with inhalational anesthetic agents. Concomitant use with aliskiren may increase the risk of developing hypotension.
    Ketoconazole: (Moderate) Coadmistration of aliskiren with ketoconazole, causes a significant increase in the plasma concentration of aliskiren. When 200 mg of ketoconazole twice daily was administered with aliskiren, the plasma concentrations of aliskiren increased by 80%. Although a 400 mg dose of ketoconazole was not studied, it is expected that the higher dose would further increase plasma concentrations of aliskiren. Blood pressure should be monitored in patients taking both of these medications.
    Ketoprofen: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Ketorolac: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Lansoprazole; Naproxen: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Lesinurad: (Moderate) Lesinurad may decrease the systemic exposure and therapeutic efficacy of aliskiren; monitor for potential reduction in efficacy. Aliskiren is a CYP3A substrate, and lesinurad is a weak CYP3A inducer.
    Lesinurad; Allopurinol: (Moderate) Lesinurad may decrease the systemic exposure and therapeutic efficacy of aliskiren; monitor for potential reduction in efficacy. Aliskiren is a CYP3A substrate, and lesinurad is a weak CYP3A inducer.
    Levoketoconazole: (Moderate) Coadmistration of aliskiren with ketoconazole, causes a significant increase in the plasma concentration of aliskiren. When 200 mg of ketoconazole twice daily was administered with aliskiren, the plasma concentrations of aliskiren increased by 80%. Although a 400 mg dose of ketoconazole was not studied, it is expected that the higher dose would further increase plasma concentrations of aliskiren. Blood pressure should be monitored in patients taking both of these medications.
    Lidocaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Antihypertensives, including aliskiren, antagonize the vasopressor effects of parenteral epinephrine.
    Lisdexamfetamine: (Minor) Close monitoring of blood pressure or the selection of alternative therapeutic agents may be needed in patients receiving aliskiren and lisdexamfetamine. Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents.
    Lisinopril: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Lisinopril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Lithium: (Minor) In theory, direct renin inhibitors, such as aliskiren, have the potential to interact with lithium; therefore, the combination should be used cautiously and with careful monitoring of lithium levels. Related drug classes, such as ACE inhibitors, may substantially increase lithium levels, sometimes resulting in lithium toxicity. Because aliskerin has demonstrated significant natriuresis, increased renal tubular reabsorption of lithium may be possible. If alternative therapies are not possible, monitoring for lithium toxicity (e.g., nausea, vomiting, anorexia, drowsiness, dysarthria, tremor, confusion, lethargy, EKG changes, etc.) is advisable. More frequent assessments of lithium levels and adjustment of lithium dosage may be needed.
    Lomitapide: (Moderate) Concomitant use of lomitapide and aliskiren may result in increased serum concentrations of aliskiren. According to the manufacturer of lomitapide, dose reduction of aliskiren should be considered during concurrent use. Lomitapide is an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and aliskiren is a P-gp substrate.
    Loop diuretics: (Moderate) Aliskiren can enhance the effects of loop-diuretics on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Patients with hyponatremia or hypovolemia may also develop reversible renal insufficiency. When aliskiren is administered in combination with furosemide, the AUC and Cmax of furosemide are reduced by approximately 30% and 50%, respectively; the pharmacokinetics of aliskiren are not affected. Patients should be monitored for loss of effect of furosemide when aliskiren is initiated. Blood pressure and electrolytes should be routinely monitored.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of aliskiren may be elevated when administered concurrently with ritonavir. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as decreased blood pressure, is recommended during coadministration. Ritonavir is an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Aliskiren is a substrate of both CYP3A4 and P-gp.
    Losartan: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Losartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Moderate) Lumacaftor; ivacaftor may alter the systemic exposure of aliskiren. If used together, monitor blood pressure closely and adjust the aliskiren dosage as appropriate. Aliskiren is a substrate of CYP3A4 and the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug transporter. Lumacaftor is a strong CYP3A inducer; in vitro data suggests lumacaftor; ivacaftor may also induce and/or inhibit P-gp. While the induction of aliskiren through the CYP3A pathway may lead to decreased drug efficacy, the net effect of lumacaftor; ivacaftor on P-gp transport is not clear.
    Lurasidone: (Moderate) Due to the antagonism of lurasidone at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, the drug may enhance the hypotensive effects of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive agents. If concurrent use of lurasidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Meclofenamate Sodium: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Mefenamic Acid: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Meloxicam: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Mepivacaine: (Moderate) Local anesthetics may cause additive hypotension in combination with antihypertensive agents. Thus, patients receiving antihypertensive agents may experience additive hypotensive effects.
    Mepivacaine; Levonordefrin: (Moderate) Local anesthetics may cause additive hypotension in combination with antihypertensive agents. Thus, patients receiving antihypertensive agents may experience additive hypotensive effects.
    Mestranol; Norethindrone: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients; monitor patients receiving concurrent therapy to confirm that the desired antihypertensive effect is being obtained.
    Methylphenidate Derivatives: (Moderate) Methylphenidate derivatives can reduce the hypotensive effect of antihypertensive agents, including aliskiren. Periodic evaluation of blood pressure is advisable during concurrent use of methylphenidates and antihypertensive agents, particularly during initial coadministration and after dosage increases of methylphenidate derivatives.
    Minoxidil: (Moderate) Aliskiren can enhance the effects of vasodilators on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Blood pressure and electrolytes should be routinely monitored in patients receiving aliskiren.
    Mitotane: (Moderate) Use caution if mitotane and aliskiren are used concomitantly, and monitor for decreased efficacy of aliskiren and a possible change in dosage requirements. Mitotane is a strong CYP3A4 inducer and aliskiren is a CYP3A4 substrate; coadministration may result in decreased plasma concentrations of aliskiren.
    Moexipril: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Nabumetone: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Naproxen: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Naproxen; Esomeprazole: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Nebivolol; Valsartan: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Nefazodone: (Minor) Although relatively infrequent, nefazodone may cause orthostatic hypotension in some patients; this effect may be additive with antihypertensive agents. Blood pressure monitoring and dosage adjustments of either drug may be necessary.
    Nirmatrelvir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of aliskiren may be elevated when administered concurrently with ritonavir. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as decreased blood pressure, is recommended during coadministration. Ritonavir is an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Aliskiren is a substrate of both CYP3A4 and P-gp.
    Nitroprusside: (Moderate) Aliskiren can enhance the effects of vasodilators on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Blood pressure and electrolytes should be routinely monitored in patients receiving aliskiren.
    Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Olmesartan: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Olmesartan; Amlodipine; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Olmesartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of aliskiren may be elevated when administered concurrently with ritonavir. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as decreased blood pressure, is recommended during coadministration. Ritonavir is an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Aliskiren is a substrate of both CYP3A4 and P-gp.
    Oxaprozin: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Pazopanib: (Moderate) Pazopanib is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4. Coadministration of pazopanib and aliskiren, a CYP3A4 substrate, may cause an increase in systemic concentrations of aliskiren. Use caution when administering these drugs concomitantly.
    Pentoxifylline: (Moderate) Pentoxifylline has been used concurrently with antihypertensive drugs (beta blockers, diuretics) without observed problems. Small decreases in blood pressure have been observed in some patients treated with pentoxifylline; periodic systemic blood pressure monitoring is recommended for patients receiving concomitant antihypertensives. If indicated, dosage of the antihypertensive agents should be reduced.
    Perindopril: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Perindopril; Amlodipine: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Piroxicam: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Posaconazole: (Moderate) Posaconazole and aliskiren should be coadministered with caution due to an increased potential for aliskiren-related adverse events. Posaconazole is a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, an isoenzyme responsible for the metabolism of aliskiren. These drugs used in combination may result in elevated aliskiren plasma concentrations, causing an increased risk for aliskiren-related adverse events.
    Potassium Acetate: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and aliskiren are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Potassium Bicarbonate: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and aliskiren are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Potassium Chloride: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and aliskiren are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Potassium Citrate: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and aliskiren are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Potassium Citrate; Citric Acid: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and aliskiren are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Potassium Gluconate: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and aliskiren are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Potassium Iodide, KI: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and aliskiren are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Potassium: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and aliskiren are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Potassium-sparing diuretics: (Moderate) Due to the risk of hyperkalemia, drugs that increase serum potassium concentration, such as potassium-sparing diuretics, should be used cautiously in patients taking aliskiren. Electrolytes should be routinely monitored in patients receiving aliskiren. Aliskiren can enhance the effects of diuretics on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Also, patients with hyponatremia or hypovolemia may become hypotensive and/or develop reversible renal insufficiency when given aliskiren and diuretics.
    Prazosin: (Moderate) Prazosin is well-known to produce a 'first-dose' phenomenon. Some patients develop significant hypotension shortly after administration of the first dose. The first dose response (acute postural hypotension) of prazosin may be exaggerated in patients who are receiving beta-adrenergic blockers, diuretics, or other antihypertensive agents. Concomitant administration of prazosin with other antihypertensive agents is not prohibited, however. This can be therapeutically advantageous, but lower dosages of each agent should be used.
    Prilocaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Antihypertensives, including aliskiren, antagonize the vasopressor effects of parenteral epinephrine.
    Propofol: (Moderate) General anesthtics may be associated with hypotension; however the frequency is less than with inhalational anesthetic agents. Concomitant use with aliskiren may increase the risk of developing hypotension.
    Quinapril: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Quinapril; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Ramipril: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Rasagiline: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension has been reported during administration of rasagiline. Therefore, caution is advised during concurrent use with antihypertensive agents. Rasagiline is a selective MAO-B inhibitor at manufacturer recommended doses; therefore, serious hypertensive reactions with agents affecting catecholamine release (e.g., guanabenz, reserpine, guanethidine) are unlikely. Nevertheless, patients receiving rasagiline in combination with an antihypertensive should be instructed to rise slowly from a sitting position, and to report syncope, and changes in heart rate or blood pressure to their health care provider.
    Ritonavir: (Moderate) The plasma concentrations of aliskiren may be elevated when administered concurrently with ritonavir. Clinical monitoring for adverse effects, such as decreased blood pressure, is recommended during coadministration. Ritonavir is an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Aliskiren is a substrate of both CYP3A4 and P-gp.
    Rofecoxib: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Sacubitril; Valsartan: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Sevoflurane: (Moderate) General anesthtics may be associated with hypotension; however the frequency is less than with inhalational anesthetic agents. Concomitant use with aliskiren may increase the risk of developing hypotension.
    Sildenafil: (Moderate) Aliskiren can enhance the effects of sildenafil on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Blood pressure and electrolytes should be routinely monitored in patients receiving aliskiren.
    Silodosin: (Moderate) During clinical trials with silodosin, the incidence of dizziness and orthostatic hypotension was higher in patients receiving concomitant antihypertensive treatment. Thus, caution is advisable when silodosin is administered with antihypertensive agents.
    Sodium Sulfate; Magnesium Sulfate; Potassium Chloride: (Moderate) Monitor serum potassium concentrations closely if potassium supplements and aliskiren are used together. Concomitant use may increase the risk of hyperkalemia.
    Sofosbuvir; Velpatasvir; Voxilaprevir: (Moderate) Plasma concentrations of aliskiren, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, may be increased when administered concurrently with voxilaprevir, a P-gp inhibitor. Monitor patients for increased side effects if these drugs are administered concurrently.
    Spironolactone: (Moderate) Due to the risk of hyperkalemia, drugs that increase serum potassium concentration, such as potassium-sparing diuretics, should be used cautiously in patients taking aliskiren. Electrolytes should be routinely monitored in patients receiving aliskiren. Aliskiren can enhance the effects of diuretics on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Also, patients with hyponatremia or hypovolemia may become hypotensive and/or develop reversible renal insufficiency when given aliskiren and diuretics.
    Spironolactone; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Due to the risk of hyperkalemia, drugs that increase serum potassium concentration, such as potassium-sparing diuretics, should be used cautiously in patients taking aliskiren. Electrolytes should be routinely monitored in patients receiving aliskiren. Aliskiren can enhance the effects of diuretics on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Also, patients with hyponatremia or hypovolemia may become hypotensive and/or develop reversible renal insufficiency when given aliskiren and diuretics.
    Sulindac: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Sumatriptan; Naproxen: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Telaprevir: (Moderate) Close clinical monitoring is advised when administering aliskiren with telaprevir due to an increased potential for aliskiren-related adverse events. If aliskiren dose adjustments are made, re-adjust the dose upon completion of telaprevir treatment. Although this interaction has not been studied, predictions about the interaction can be made based on the metabolic pathway of aliskiren. Aliskiren is metabolized by the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; telaprevir inhibits this isoenzyme. Coadministration may result in elevated aliskiren plasma concentrations.
    Telmisartan: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Telmisartan; Amlodipine: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Telmisartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Thiothixene: (Moderate) Thiothixene should be used cautiously in patients receiving antihypertensive agents. Additive hypotensive effects are possible.
    Tizanidine: (Moderate) Aliskiren can enhance the effects of tizanidine on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Blood pressure and electrolytes should be routinely monitored in patients receiving aliskiren.
    Tolmetin: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Torsemide: (Moderate) Aliskiren can enhance the effects of loop-diuretics on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Patients with hyponatremia or hypovolemia may also develop reversible renal insufficiency. When aliskiren is administered in combination with furosemide, the AUC and Cmax of furosemide are reduced by approximately 30% and 50%, respectively; the pharmacokinetics of aliskiren are not affected. Patients should be monitored for loss of effect of furosemide when aliskiren is initiated. Blood pressure and electrolytes should be routinely monitored.
    Trandolapril: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Trandolapril; Verapamil: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ACE inhibitors and aliskiren do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury. (Moderate) Administration of 240 mg verapamil with 300 mg aliskiren resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in AUC and Cmax of aliskiren; however, no dosage adjustment is necessary. Blood pressure should be closely monitored in patients taking both of these medications.
    Tranylcypromine: (Contraindicated) The use of hypotensive agents and tranylcypromine is contraindicated by the manufacturer of tranylcypromine because the effects of hypotensive agents may be markedly potentiated.
    Triamterene: (Moderate) Due to the risk of hyperkalemia, drugs that increase serum potassium concentration, such as potassium-sparing diuretics, should be used cautiously in patients taking aliskiren. Electrolytes should be routinely monitored in patients receiving aliskiren. Aliskiren can enhance the effects of diuretics on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Also, patients with hyponatremia or hypovolemia may become hypotensive and/or develop reversible renal insufficiency when given aliskiren and diuretics.
    Triamterene; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Due to the risk of hyperkalemia, drugs that increase serum potassium concentration, such as potassium-sparing diuretics, should be used cautiously in patients taking aliskiren. Electrolytes should be routinely monitored in patients receiving aliskiren. Aliskiren can enhance the effects of diuretics on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Also, patients with hyponatremia or hypovolemia may become hypotensive and/or develop reversible renal insufficiency when given aliskiren and diuretics.
    Tucatinib: (Moderate) Coadministration of aliskiren and tucatinib may increase the exposure of aliskiren. Monitor for adverse effects, such as decreased blood pressure, during coadministration. Aliskiren is a substrate of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp); tucatinib is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor and P-gp inhibitor.
    Valdecoxib: (Moderate) NSAIDs may attenuate the antihypertensive effects of aliskiren by inhibiting the synthesis of vasodilatory prostaglandins. In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or with compromised renal function who are being treated with NSAIDs, the coadministration of aliskiren may result in a further deterioration of renal function, including acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Therefore, blood pressure and renal function should be monitored closely when an NSAID is administered to a patient taking aliskiren.
    Valsartan: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Valsartan; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Major) Aliskiren-containing products are contraindicated in combination with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) in patients with diabetes mellitus. In general, avoid combined use of two renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, particularly in patients with CrCl less than 60 mL/minute. Combination therapy increases the risk for hyperkalemia, renal impairment, hypotension, and other side effects. Most patients receiving a comination of two RAAS inhibitors, such as ARBs and aliskiren, do not obtain any additional benefit compared to monotherapy. Closely monitor blood pressure, renal function, and electrolytes if aliskiren must be combined with another RAAS inhibitor. In the ALTITUDE trial, patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment, a population at high risk for cardiovascular and renal events, were given aliskiren in addition to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. The trial was stopped early because aliskiren was associated with an increased risk of non-fatal stroke, renal complications, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. In the Veterans Affairs Nephropathy in Diabetes (VA NEPHRON-D) trial, no additional benefit over monotherapy was seen in patients receiving the combination of losartan and lisinopril compared to monotherapy; however, there was an increased incidence of hyperkalemia and acute renal injury.
    Vasodilators: (Moderate) Aliskiren can enhance the effects of vasodilators on blood pressure if given concomitantly. This additive effect may be desirable, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. Blood pressure and electrolytes should be routinely monitored in patients receiving aliskiren.
    Verapamil: (Moderate) Administration of 240 mg verapamil with 300 mg aliskiren resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in AUC and Cmax of aliskiren; however, no dosage adjustment is necessary. Blood pressure should be closely monitored in patients taking both of these medications.
    Warfarin: (Minor) Coadministration of warfarin with aliskrien decreases the absorption (Cmax) of warfarin by up to 12%. During clinical evaluation, coadministration did not reveal any significant effect on blood coagulation parameters in tested blood samples. Nevertheless, blood coagulation markers should be closely monitored in patients taking both of these medications.
    Zonisamide: (Minor) Zonisamide is a weak inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and aliskiren is a substrate of P-gp. There is theoretical potential for zonisamide to affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are P-gp substrates. Use caution when starting or stopping zonisamide or changing the zonisamide dosage in patients also receiving drugs which are P-gp substrates.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

     Aliskiren can cause fetal harm if administered to a pregnant woman. Once pregnancy is detected, discontinue aliskiren as soon as possible. Women of child-bearing age should be made aware of the potential risk to the fetus, and aliskiren should only be given after careful counseling and consideration of individual risks and benefits. The use of drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system during the second and third trimesters reduces fetal renal function and increases fetal and neonatal morbidity and death. Resulting oligohydramnios can be associated with fetal lung hypoplasia and skeletal deformations. Other potential neonatal adverse effects include skull hypoplasia, anuria, and hypotension. An observational study based on Tennessee Medicaid data reported that the risk of congenital malformations is significantly increased during first-trimester exposure to ACE inhibitors. However, a much larger observational study (n = 465,754) found that the risk of birth defects was similar in infants exposed to ACE inhibitors during the first trimester, in infants exposed to other antihypertensives during the first trimester, and in those whose mothers were hypertensive but were not treated. Infants born to mothers with hypertension, either treated or untreated, had a higher risk of birth defects than those born to mothers without hypertension. The authors concluded that the presence of hypertension likely contributed to the development of birth defects rather than the use of medications. In rare cases when another antihypertensive agent cannot be used to treat a pregnant patient, serial ultrasound examinations should be performed to assess the intraamniotic environment. If oligohydramnios is observed, discontinue aliskiren unless it is considered life-saving for the mother. It should be noted that oligohydramnios may not appear until after the fetus has sustained irreversible injury. Closely observe newborns with histories of in utero exposure to aliskiren for hypotension, oliguria, and hyperkalemia. If oliguria or hypotension occurs, blood pressure and renal perfusion support may be required, as well as exchange transfusion or dialysis to reverse hypotension and/or support decreased renal function.

    There are no data to determine if aliskiren excretion into human milk, the effects on the breast-fed infant, or the effects on milk production. Because of the potential for adverse effects on the nursing infant, breast-feeding is not recommended during aliskiren treatment. The molecular weight, long elimination half-life, and moderate plasma protein binding may allow excretion of aliskiren into breast milk; however, the low lipid solubility should limit the amount excreted. The ACE inhibitors captopril and enalapril are usually considered compatible with breast-feeding and may represent preferable alternatives in some patients. In addition, benazepril and quinapril are excreted in human breast milk in very small quantities ; therefore, a clinically significant risk to a breast-feeding infant is not expected.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Aliskiren has an innovative mechanism of action for the treatment of hypertension and end organ damage. It is the first renin inhibitor approved and acts within the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), a hormone system important in the regulation of blood pressure, electrolyte homeostasis, and vascular growth. The RAS includes a cascade of events, beginning with renin, which cleaves the inactive peptide angiotensinogen, converting it to angiotensin I. Angiotensin I (Ang I) is then converted by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) to the biologically active vasoconstrictor angiotensin II (Ang II). Aliskiren significantly inhibits the RAS in a dose-dependent manner with maximum reductions in Ang II observed within one hour following oral administration. ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) have been developed to block this system 'down stream' and have shown clinical efficacy in patients with hypertension, chronic renal failure, congestive heart failure, and other cardiovascular diseases. Because renin catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of the RAS and has high specificity for its substrate, angiotensinogen, renin inhibitors present the new mechanism for blocking this complex hormonal system at its initial point of activation resulting in major potential benefits in blood pressure control and perhaps a more beneficial side effect profile. In contrast to ACE, which acts on bradykinin in addition to Ang I, renin is highly selective for angiotensinogen. Although the increased levels of bradykinin and substance P that occur with ACE inhibition may contribute to blood pressure reduction, they are also responsible for side effects associated with ACE inhibitors. Clinical trial evidence suggests that blockade of the RAS by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition or by angiotensin receptor blockade may influence large vessel atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality independent of lowering blood pressure.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Aliskiren is administered orally. It appears that metabolism does not play a large role in elimination, as 91% of a radiolabeled dose is eliminated unchanged in the feces. It is unclear how much of the dose is metabolized, but hepatobiliary clearance seems to be the main route of elimination. Based on in vitro studies, the major enzyme responsible metabolism is CYP3A4. Aliskiren has an approximate accumulation half-life of 24 hours, allowing for once daily dosing.
     
    Affected cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and drug transporters: CYP3A4 and P-gp
    Aliskiren does not inhibit or induce any CYP450 isozymes, including CYP3A4. Aliskiren is a CYP3A4 substrate. Preclinical studies indicate it is also a substrate for P-glycoprotein.

    Oral Route

    As with other previously studied renin inhibitors, Aliskiren is poorly absorbed following oral administration and has a bioavailability of about 2.5%. Peak plasma concentrations are reached within 1 to 3 hours of dosing; steady-state blood concentrations are reached in about 7 to 8 days. Administration with a high fat meal decreases the mean AUC and Cmax by 71% and 85%, respectively. Although patients are encouraged to take their dose on a fixed schedule with regard to meals, aliskiren was dosed without regard to meals in clinical evaluation. Following oral administration, a small portion of the absorbed dose is also present in the urine as parent drug.