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    Calcium Antagonists with Cerebral Activity

    BOXED WARNING

    Intraarterial administration, intracorporeal administration, intramuscular administration, intrathecal administration, intravenous administration

    Nimodipine is only approved for oral administration for the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Only administer nimodipine products enterally (e.g., oral, nasogastric tube, or gastric tube route). Do not administer any oral products parenterally. Administration of the oral solution, or the contents of nimodipine capsules, is contraindicated via intravenous administration or by any other parenteral administration route (e.g., intraarterial administration, intracorporeal administration, intramuscular administration, intrathecal administration). Deaths and serious, life-threatening adverse events have occurred when the contents of nimodipine capsules have been injected parenterally.

    DEA CLASS

    Rx

    DESCRIPTION

    Oral calcium-channel blocker
    Due to its selectivity for cerebral arterioles, it is used to treat SAH rather than HTN like other dihydropyridines; has negligible effects on AV conduction; also effective for migraine prophylaxis
    For oral use only; not for IV administration (can cause cardiac collapse and death)

    COMMON BRAND NAMES

    Nimotop, Nymalize

    HOW SUPPLIED

    Nimodipine/Nimotop Oral Cap: 30mg
    Nymalize Oral Sol: 1mL, 6mg

    DOSAGE & INDICATIONS

    For the reduction of the incidence and severity of ischemic deficits associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from ruptured berry aneurysms (regardless of post-ictus neurological condition, includes all Hunt and Hess Grades I-V).
    Oral dosage
    Adults

    Initially, 60 mg PO every 4 hours for 21 consecutive days. Begin therapy within 96 hours of SAH. One retrospective study found that patients did not experience a delayed neurological deficit following an abbreviated course of nimodipine (<= 15 days). This preliminary evaluation reviewed 90 consecutive patients with good-grade (Hunt and Hess Grade I through III) aneurysmal SAH. Further controlled investigation is needed to document the efficacy of abbreviated regimens.

    Intravenous dosage† (IV form currently not available in the United States)
    Adults

    Initially, 1 mg/hour IV for 2 hours. Then 1—3 mg/hour IV for 1—2 weeks. Oral therapy should be continued thereafter for 1—3 weeks. NOTE: The IV formulation is not available in the United States. The contents of nimodipine capsules should NEVER be administered intravenously or by other parenteral routes. Intravenous injection of nimodipine formulations intended for enteral use can result in death, cardiac arrest, severe hypotension, and other heart-related complications.

    MAXIMUM DOSAGE

    Adults

    360 mg/day PO.

    Elderly

    360 mg/day PO.

    Adolescents

    Safety and efficacy have not been established; however, PO doses of up to 30 mg/day (weight <40 kg), 48 mg/day (weight 40—50 kg), and 60 mg/day (weight >50 kg) have been reported.

    Children

     >= 7 years: Safety and efficacy have not been established; however, PO doses of up to 30 mg/day (weight < 40 kg), 48 mg/day (weight 40—50 kg), and 60 mg/day (weight > 50 kg) have been reported.
     < 7 years: Safety and efficacy have not been established.

    DOSING CONSIDERATIONS

    Hepatic Impairment

    Reduce the dosage by 50% (e.g., 30 mg every 4 hours for subarachnoid hemorrhage), with close monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate.

    Renal Impairment

    Specific guidelines for dosage adjustments in renal impairment are not available; it appears that no dosage adjustments are needed.
     
    Intermittent hemodialysis
    Nimodipine is highly protein bound and is unlikely to be significantly removed by hemodialysis.

    ADMINISTRATION

    Oral Administration

    Swallow the capsules whole with a little liquid, preferably at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals.
    Avoid taking with grapefruit juice or grapefruit.

    Oral Solid Formulations

    Preparation of oral solution from capsules (for patients unable to swallow capsules or nonstandard doses)
    Doses extracted from capsules should be prepared by the pharmacy. Label oral syringes "Not for IV Use" and dispense in amber oral syringes in labeled, light-protected bags. Nimodipine can cause serious adverse reactions, including cardiovascular collapse and death, if it is accidentally given parenterally.[29082] [33314]
    Make a hole in both ends of the capsule with an 18-gauge needle and extract the contents into a syringe.
    A parenteral syringe can be used to extract the liquid from the capsule, but the dose should ALWAYS be transferred into an oral syringe that cannot accept a needle.[29082]
    Storage: Nimodipine liquid extracted from capsules, stored in amber oral syringes, and placed in light-protected bags is stable for 30 days at room temperature.[33315]

    Oral Liquid Formulations

    Nonstandard doses should be prepared by the pharmacy. Label oral syringes (one that cannot accept a needle) "For Oral Use Only"; nimodipine can cause serious adverse reactions including cardiovascular collapse and death if it is accidentally given parenterally.
    Administer the contents of the syringe (supplied by pharmacy) enterally; if given via nasogastric or gastric tube, flush the tube with 10 to 30 mL of saline afterward.[29082] [54661]

    STORAGE

    Nimotop:
    - Protect from freezing
    - Protect from light
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F
    - Store in original package until time of use
    Nymalize:
    - Do not refrigerate
    - Protect from light
    - Store between 68 to 77 degrees F, excursions permitted 59 to 86 degrees F

    CONTRAINDICATIONS / PRECAUTIONS

    Hepatic disease

    Nimodipine should be used with caution in patients with hepatic disease or impairment because it undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism. Patients with hepatic cirrhosis have substantially increased bioavailability, reduced clearance and approximately two-fold increases in peak serum concentrations of nimodipine.

    Pregnancy

    There are no adequate and well-controlled studies on the developmental risks associated with the use of nimodipine during pregnancy. Nimodipine has been found to cross the placenta. In animal studies involving pregnant rats and rabbits that received doses equivalent to (rats) or less than (rabbits) those used clinically in humans, nimodipine was associated with embryofetal mortality, increased incidences of fetal structural abnormalities, and decreased fetal growth.

    Acute myocardial infarction, bradycardia, cardiogenic shock, heart failure, ventricular dysfunction

    Risk-benefit should be assessed when considering the use of nimodipine in patients with bradycardia, heart failure or ventricular dysfunction, acute myocardial infarction with pulmonary congestion, or cardiogenic shock because the potential negative inotropic effects of the drug can worsen these conditions.

    Hypotension

    Nimodipine decreases peripheral resistance and can worsen hypotension. Nimodipine should not be used in patients with systolic blood pressures of less than 90 mm Hg (i.e., severe hypotension). Nimodipine should be used with caution in patients with mild to moderate hypotension. Blood pressure should be monitored carefully in all patients receiving nimodipine.

    Intraarterial administration, intracorporeal administration, intramuscular administration, intrathecal administration, intravenous administration

    Nimodipine is only approved for oral administration for the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Only administer nimodipine products enterally (e.g., oral, nasogastric tube, or gastric tube route). Do not administer any oral products parenterally. Administration of the oral solution, or the contents of nimodipine capsules, is contraindicated via intravenous administration or by any other parenteral administration route (e.g., intraarterial administration, intracorporeal administration, intramuscular administration, intrathecal administration). Deaths and serious, life-threatening adverse events have occurred when the contents of nimodipine capsules have been injected parenterally.

    Geriatric

    In geriatric subjects, the observed AUC and Cmax of nimodipine was approximately 2-fold higher compared to the younger study subjects following multiple oral dosing. The clinical response to these age-related pharmacokinetic differences, however, was not considered significant.

    Children

    The safety and efficacy of nimodipine in children have not been established.

    Breast-feeding

    There is limited data on the effects of nimodipine on the breastfed infant or milk production. Nimodipine and its metabolites have been shown to appear in human milk. Two case reports describe the use of nimodipine in breast-feeding mothers. Based on this limited data, it is estimated that a nursing infant would receive less than 1% of the mother's weight-adjusted dosage of nimodipine. The American Academy of Pediatrics considers nifedipine, another calcium-channel blocker, to be usually compatible with breast-feeding. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    ADVERSE REACTIONS

    Severe

    bradycardia / Rapid / 1.0-1.0
    GI bleeding / Delayed / 0-1.0
    heart failure / Delayed / Incidence not known
    cardiac arrest / Early / Incidence not known

    Moderate

    hypotension / Rapid / 4.4-5.0
    hypertension / Early / 0-1.0
    palpitations / Early / 0-1.0
    anemia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hematoma / Early / 0-1.0
    thrombocytopenia / Delayed / 0-1.0
    hepatitis / Delayed / 0-1.0
    jaundice / Delayed / 0-1.0
    wheezing / Rapid / 0-1.0
    elevated hepatic enzymes / Delayed / 0.4-0.4
    peripheral vasodilation / Rapid / Incidence not known
    peripheral edema / Delayed / Incidence not known

    Mild

    diarrhea / Early / 1.0-10.0
    headache / Early / 1.2-1.2
    nausea / Early / 1.2-1.2
    flushing / Rapid / 0-1.0
    dizziness / Early / 0-1.0
    diaphoresis / Early / 0-1.0
    vomiting / Early / 0-1.0
    myalgia / Early / 0-1.0
    pruritus / Rapid / 0-1.0
    rash / Early / 0.6-0.6
    syncope / Early / Incidence not known
    fatigue / Early / Incidence not known
    asthenia / Delayed / Incidence not known

    DRUG INTERACTIONS

    Acebutolol: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine : (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Acetaminophen; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine; Phenyltoloxamine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Acetaminophen; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Acetaminophen; Dichloralphenazone; Isometheptene: (Major) Isometheptene has sympathomimetic properties. Patients taking antihypertensive agents may need to have their therapy modified. Careful blood pressure monitoring is recommended.
    Acetaminophen; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Acetaminophen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Acrivastine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Adenosine: (Moderate) Use adenosine with caution in the presence of calcium-channel blockers due to the potential for additive or synergistic depressant effects on the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes.
    Aldesleukin, IL-2: (Moderate) Calcium channel blockers may potentiate the hypotension seen with aldesleukin, IL 2.
    Alemtuzumab: (Moderate) Alemtuzumab may cause hypotension. Careful monitoring of blood pressure and hypotensive symptoms is recommended especially in patients with ischemic heart disease and in patients on antihypertensive agents.
    Alfentanil: (Moderate) Monitor patients for bradycardia and hypotension when alfentanil is coadministered with nimodipine. Alfentanil may cause bradycardia. The risk of significant hypotension and/or bradycardia during therapy with alfentanil is increased in patients receiving nimodipine.
    Alprostadil: (Minor) The concomitant use of systemic alprostadil injection and antihypertensive agents, like calcium channel blockers, may cause additive hypotension. Caution is advised with this combination. Systemic drug interactions with the urethral suppository (MUSE) or alprostadil intracavernous injection are unlikely in most patients because low or undetectable amounts of the drug are found in the peripheral venous circulation following administration. In those men with significant corpora cavernosa venous leakage, hypotension might be more likely. Use caution with in-clinic dosing for erectile dysfunction (ED) and monitor for the effects on blood pressure. In addition, the presence of medications in the circulation that attenuate erectile function may influence the response to alprostadil. However, in clinical trials with alprostadil intracavernous injection, anti-hypertensive agents had no apparent effect on the safety and efficacy of alprostadil.
    Amifostine: (Major) Patients receiving calcium-channel blockers should be closely monitored during amifostine infusions due to additive effects. Patients receiving amifostine at doses recommended for chemotherapy should have antihypertensive therapy interrupted 24 hours preceding administration of amifostine. If the antihypertensive cannot be stopped for 24 hours before chemotherapy doses of amifostine, patients should not receive amifostine.
    Aminolevulinic Acid: (Minor) Preclinical data suggest that calcium-channel blockers could decrease the efficacy of photosensitizing agents used in photodynamic therapy.
    Amiodarone: (Moderate) CYP3A4 inhibitors which theoretically may decrease hepatic metabolism of nimodipine include amiodarone.
    Amlodipine; Celecoxib: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Amobarbital: (Major) In epileptic patients taking phenobarbital with or without other enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants, there is a 7-fold decrease in the AUC of nimodipine due to hepatic enzyme induction. Patients receiving barbiturates and nimodipine concomitantly should be monitored closely for efficacy. Although no data are available, it is likely that nimodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate, may be affected by the coadministration of all barbiturates.
    Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin; Omeprazole: (Major) Avoid coadministration of clarithromycin and nimodipine, particularly in geriatric patients, due to an increased risk of hypotension and acute kidney injury. If the use of a macrolide antibiotic is necessary in a patient receiving nimodipine therapy, azithromycin is the preferred agent. If coadministration is unavoidable, monitor blood pressure closely. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and clarithromycin is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. A retrospective, case crossover study, found the risk of hospitalization due to hypotension or shock to be significantly increased in geriatric patients exposed to clarithromycin during concurrent calcium-channel blocker therapy (OR 3.7, 95% CI 2.3-6.1). Concurrent use of azithromycin was not associated with an increased risk of hypotension (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.8-2.8).
    Amphetamine; Dextroamphetamine Salts: (Minor) Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Amprenavir: (Moderate) Anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are CYP3A4 inhibitors and may decrease the hepatic metabolism of nimodipine, leading to increased plasma concentrations of nimodipine. In addition, ritonavir and calcium channel blockers both prolong the PR interval and the manufacturer for ritonavir recommends caution during coadministration. Monitor therapeutic response and for adverse effects, such as hypotension. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Amyl Nitrite: (Moderate) Nitroglycerin can cause hypotension. This action may be additive with other agents that can cause hypotension such as calcium-channel blockers. Patients should be monitored more closely for hypotension if nitroglycerin, including nitroglycerin rectal ointment, is used concurrently with a calcium-channel blocker.
    Apalutamide: (Major) Avoid coadministration of nimodipine with apalutamide due to decreased plasma concentrations of nimodipine. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and apalutamide is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Nimodipine plasma concentration and efficacy may be significantly reduced when concomitantly administered with strong CYP3A4 inducers.
    Apomorphine: (Moderate) Use of calcium-channel blockers and apomorphine together can increase the hypotensive effects of apomorphine. Monitor blood pressure regularly during use of this combination.
    Apraclonidine: (Minor) Apraclonidine had minimal effects on heart rate and blood pressure during clinical studies in patients with glaucoma. However, it is theoretically possible that additive blood pressure reductions could occur when apraclonidine is combined with the use of antihypertensive agents. Use caution during concurrent use, especially in patients with severe, uncontrolled cardiovascular disease, including hypertension.
    Aprepitant, Fosaprepitant: (Moderate) Use caution if nimodipine and aprepitant are used concurrently and monitor for an increase in nimodipine-related adverse effects for several days after administration of a multi-day aprepitant regimen. After administration, fosaprepitant is rapidly converted to aprepitant and shares the same drug interactions. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Aprepitant, when administered as a 3-day oral regimen (125 mg/80 mg/80 mg), is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor and inducer; substitution of fosaprepitant 115 mg IV on day 1 of the 3-day regimen may lessen the inhibitory effects of CYP3A4. The AUC of a single dose of another CYP3A4 substrate, midazolam, increased by 2.3-fold and 3.3-fold on days 1 and 5, respectively, when coadministered with a 5-day oral aprepitant regimen. After a 3-day oral aprepitant regimen, the AUC of midazolam increased by 25% on day 4, and decreased by 19% and 4% on days 8 and 15, respectively, when given on days 1, 4, 8, and 15. As a single 40-mg oral dose, the inhibitory effect of aprepitant on CYP3A4 is weak, with the AUC of midazolam increased by 1.2-fold; the midazolam AUC increased by 1.5-fold after a single 125-mg dose of oral aprepitant. After single doses of IV fosaprepitant, the midazolam AUC increased by 1.8-fold (150 mg) and 1.6-fold (100 mg); less than a 2-fold increase in the midazolam AUC is not considered clinically important.
    Articaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Antihypertensives, including calcium-channel blockers, antagonize the vasopressor effects of parenteral epinephrine.
    Asciminib: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate if coadministration with asciminib is necessary. Concurrent use may increase nimodipine exposure. Nimodipine is a CYP3A substrate and asciminib is a weak CYP3A inhibitor.
    Asenapine: (Moderate) Secondary to alpha-blockade, asenapine can produce vasodilation that may result in additive effects during concurrent use of antihypertensive agents. The potential reduction in blood pressure can precipitate orthostatic hypotension and associated dizziness, tachycardia, and syncope. If concurrent use of asenapine and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine: (Major) In epileptic patients taking phenobarbital with or without other enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants, there is a 7-fold decrease in the AUC of nimodipine due to hepatic enzyme induction. Patients receiving barbiturates and nimodipine concomitantly should be monitored closely for efficacy. Although no data are available, it is likely that nimodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate, may be affected by the coadministration of all barbiturates.
    Aspirin, ASA; Butalbital; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) In epileptic patients taking phenobarbital with or without other enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants, there is a 7-fold decrease in the AUC of nimodipine due to hepatic enzyme induction. Patients receiving barbiturates and nimodipine concomitantly should be monitored closely for efficacy. Although no data are available, it is likely that nimodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate, may be affected by the coadministration of all barbiturates.
    Atazanavir: (Moderate) Anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are CYP3A4 inhibitors and may decrease the hepatic metabolism of nimodipine, leading to increased plasma concentrations of nimodipine. In addition, ritonavir and calcium channel blockers both prolong the PR interval and the manufacturer for ritonavir recommends caution during coadministration. Monitor therapeutic response and for adverse effects, such as hypotension. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Atazanavir; Cobicistat: (Major) Avoid coadministration of nimodipine with cobicistat due to the risk of significant hypotension. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and cobicistat is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. (Moderate) Anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are CYP3A4 inhibitors and may decrease the hepatic metabolism of nimodipine, leading to increased plasma concentrations of nimodipine. In addition, ritonavir and calcium channel blockers both prolong the PR interval and the manufacturer for ritonavir recommends caution during coadministration. Monitor therapeutic response and for adverse effects, such as hypotension. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Atenolol: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Atenolol; Chlorthalidone: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Avacopan: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate if coadministration with avacopan is necessary. Concurrent use may increase nimodipine exposure. Nimodipine is a CYP3A substrate and avacopan is a weak CYP3A inhibitor.
    Baclofen: (Moderate) Baclofen has been associated with hypotension. Concurrent use with baclofen and antihypertensive agents may result in additive hypotension. Dosage adjustments of the antihypertensive medication may be required.
    Barbiturates: (Major) In epileptic patients taking phenobarbital with or without other enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants, there is a 7-fold decrease in the AUC of nimodipine due to hepatic enzyme induction. Patients receiving barbiturates and nimodipine concomitantly should be monitored closely for efficacy. Although no data are available, it is likely that nimodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate, may be affected by the coadministration of all barbiturates.
    Belladonna Alkaloids; Ergotamine; Phenobarbital: (Major) In epileptic patients taking phenobarbital with or without other enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants, there is a 7-fold decrease in the AUC of nimodipine due to hepatic enzyme induction. Patients receiving barbiturates and nimodipine concomitantly should be monitored closely for efficacy. Although no data are available, it is likely that nimodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate, may be affected by the coadministration of all barbiturates.
    Belumosudil: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate if coadministration with belumosudil is necessary. Concurrent use may increase nimodipine exposure. Nimodipine is a CYP3A substrate and belumosudil is a weak CYP3A inhibitor.
    Belzutifan: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased efficacy of nimodipine if coadministration with belzutifan is necessary as concomitant use may decrease plasma concentrations of nimodipine. Nimodipine is a CYP3A substrate and belzutifan is a weak CYP3A inducer.
    Bendroflumethiazide; Nadolol: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Benzphetamine: (Minor) Benzphetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Berotralstat: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate if coadministration with berotralstat is necessary. Concurrent use may increase nimodipine exposure. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and berotralstat is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Beta-blockers: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Betaxolol: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Bicalutamide: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate if coadministration with bicalutamide is necessary. Concurrent use may increase nimodipine exposure. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and bicalutamide is a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Bisoprolol: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Bisoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Bortezomib: (Moderate) Patients on antihypertensive agents receiving bortezomib treatment may require close monitoring of their blood pressure and dosage adjustment of their medication. During clinical trials of bortezomib, hypotension was reported in roughly 12 percent of patients.
    Bosentan: (Moderate) Closely monitor blood pressure if coadministration of nimodipine with bosentan is necessary; decreased plasma concentrations of nimodipine may occur. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and bosentan is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer.
    Brigatinib: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased efficacy of nimodipine if coadministration with brigatinib is necessary as concomitant use may decrease plasma concentrations of nimodipine. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and brigatinib is a weak CYP3A4 inducer.
    Brimonidine; Timolol: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Brompheniramine; Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Brompheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Brompheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Brompheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Brompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine; Dextromethorphan: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Bupivacaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Antihypertensives, including calcium-channel blockers, antagonize the vasopressor effects of parenteral epinephrine.
    Bupivacaine; Meloxicam: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Butabarbital: (Major) In epileptic patients taking phenobarbital with or without other enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants, there is a 7-fold decrease in the AUC of nimodipine due to hepatic enzyme induction. Patients receiving barbiturates and nimodipine concomitantly should be monitored closely for efficacy. Although no data are available, it is likely that nimodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate, may be affected by the coadministration of all barbiturates.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen: (Major) In epileptic patients taking phenobarbital with or without other enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants, there is a 7-fold decrease in the AUC of nimodipine due to hepatic enzyme induction. Patients receiving barbiturates and nimodipine concomitantly should be monitored closely for efficacy. Although no data are available, it is likely that nimodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate, may be affected by the coadministration of all barbiturates.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine: (Major) In epileptic patients taking phenobarbital with or without other enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants, there is a 7-fold decrease in the AUC of nimodipine due to hepatic enzyme induction. Patients receiving barbiturates and nimodipine concomitantly should be monitored closely for efficacy. Although no data are available, it is likely that nimodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate, may be affected by the coadministration of all barbiturates.
    Butalbital; Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Codeine: (Major) In epileptic patients taking phenobarbital with or without other enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants, there is a 7-fold decrease in the AUC of nimodipine due to hepatic enzyme induction. Patients receiving barbiturates and nimodipine concomitantly should be monitored closely for efficacy. Although no data are available, it is likely that nimodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate, may be affected by the coadministration of all barbiturates.
    Carbamazepine: (Moderate) Limited data suggest that nimodipine may potentiate the effects of carbamazepine. Patients receiving nimodipine with carbamazepine should be monitored for adverse affects and the dosages of the anticonvulsants should be adjusted accordingly. Serum concentrations of carbamazepine may be helpful in guiding dosage adjustments as peak carbamazepine serum concentrations were increased when given concomitantly with nimodipine. In addition, in epileptic patients taking carbamazepine and/or phenytoin with or without other enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants, there is a 7-fold decrease in the AUC of nimodipine due to hepatic enzyme induction.
    Carbetapentane; Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Carbetapentane; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Carbetapentane; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Carbetapentane; Phenylephrine; Pyrilamine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Carbetapentane; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa: (Moderate) Concomitant use of antihypertensive agents with levodopa can result in additive hypotensive effects.
    Carbidopa; Levodopa; Entacapone: (Moderate) Concomitant use of antihypertensive agents with levodopa can result in additive hypotensive effects.
    Carbinoxamine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Carbinoxamine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Carbinoxamine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Carbinoxamine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Carteolol: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Carvedilol: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Celecoxib: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Celecoxib; Tramadol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Cenobamate: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased efficacy of nimodipine if coadministration with cenobamate is necessary as concomitant use may decrease plasma concentrations of nimodipine. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and cenobamate is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer.
    Ceritinib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of nimodipine with ceritinib due to the risk of significant hypotension. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and ceritinib is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Cetirizine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Chlophedianol; Dexchlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Chlophedianol; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Chloroprocaine: (Moderate) Local anesthetics may cause additive hypotension in combination with antihypertensive agents.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Chlorpheniramine; Dihydrocodeine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Chlorpheniramine; Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Chlorpheniramine; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Chlorpheniramine; Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease. (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Chlorpheniramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Chlorpheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Cimetidine: (Moderate) Cimetidine has been shown to increase the oral bioavailability of nimodipine due to cimetidine's effects on the cytochrome P-450 hepatic enzymes. Lower doses of nimodipine may be necessary in patients receiving cimetidine.
    Clarithromycin: (Major) Avoid coadministration of clarithromycin and nimodipine, particularly in geriatric patients, due to an increased risk of hypotension and acute kidney injury. If the use of a macrolide antibiotic is necessary in a patient receiving nimodipine therapy, azithromycin is the preferred agent. If coadministration is unavoidable, monitor blood pressure closely. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and clarithromycin is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. A retrospective, case crossover study, found the risk of hospitalization due to hypotension or shock to be significantly increased in geriatric patients exposed to clarithromycin during concurrent calcium-channel blocker therapy (OR 3.7, 95% CI 2.3-6.1). Concurrent use of azithromycin was not associated with an increased risk of hypotension (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.8-2.8).
    Cobicistat: (Major) Avoid coadministration of nimodipine with cobicistat due to the risk of significant hypotension. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and cobicistat is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Cocaine: (Major) Use of cocaine with antihypertensive agents may increase the antihypertensive effects of the antihypertensive medications or may potentiate cocaine-induced sympathetic stimulation.
    Codeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Codeine; Phenylephrine; Promethazine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Co-Enzyme Q10, Ubiquinone: (Moderate) Co-enzyme Q10, ubiquinone (CoQ10) may lower blood pressure. CoQ10 use in combination with antihypertensive agents may lead to additional reductions in blood pressure in some individuals. Patients who choose to take CoQ10 concurrently with antihypertensive medications should receive periodic blood pressure monitoring. Patients should be advised to inform their prescriber of their use of CoQ10.
    Conivaptan: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate if coadministration with conivaptan is necessary. Concurrent use may increase nimodipine exposure. Nimodipine is a CYP3A substrate and conivaptan is a moderate CYP3A inhibitor.
    Crizotinib: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate if coadministration with crizotinib is necessary. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and crizotinib is a moderate CYP3A inhibitor.
    Dalfopristin; Quinupristin: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and watch for an increase in nimodipine-related adverse reactions if coadministration with dalfopristin; quinupristin is necessary; consider reducing the dose of nimodipine if needed. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and dalfopristin; quinupristin is a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor; concomitant use may increase plasma concentrations of nimodipine.
    Danazol: (Minor) Danazol is a CYP3A4 inhibitor and can decrease the hepatic metabolism of CYP3A4 substrates like calcium-channel blockers.
    Dantrolene: (Moderate) Concurrent use with skeletal muscle relaxants and antihypertensive agents may result in additive hypotension. Dosage adjustments of the antihypertensive medication may be required.
    Darunavir: (Moderate) Anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are CYP3A4 inhibitors and may decrease the hepatic metabolism of nimodipine, leading to increased plasma concentrations of nimodipine. In addition, ritonavir and calcium channel blockers both prolong the PR interval and the manufacturer for ritonavir recommends caution during coadministration. Monitor therapeutic response and for adverse effects, such as hypotension. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat: (Major) Avoid coadministration of nimodipine with cobicistat due to the risk of significant hypotension. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and cobicistat is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. (Moderate) Anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are CYP3A4 inhibitors and may decrease the hepatic metabolism of nimodipine, leading to increased plasma concentrations of nimodipine. In addition, ritonavir and calcium channel blockers both prolong the PR interval and the manufacturer for ritonavir recommends caution during coadministration. Monitor therapeutic response and for adverse effects, such as hypotension. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Darunavir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir alafenamide: (Major) Avoid coadministration of nimodipine with cobicistat due to the risk of significant hypotension. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and cobicistat is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. (Moderate) Anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are CYP3A4 inhibitors and may decrease the hepatic metabolism of nimodipine, leading to increased plasma concentrations of nimodipine. In addition, ritonavir and calcium channel blockers both prolong the PR interval and the manufacturer for ritonavir recommends caution during coadministration. Monitor therapeutic response and for adverse effects, such as hypotension. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Dasabuvir; Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are CYP3A4 inhibitors and may decrease the hepatic metabolism of nimodipine, leading to increased plasma concentrations of nimodipine. In addition, ritonavir and calcium channel blockers both prolong the PR interval and the manufacturer for ritonavir recommends caution during coadministration. Monitor therapeutic response and for adverse effects, such as hypotension. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Delavirdine: (Moderate) Delavirdine is a potent inhibitor of the CYP3A4 and increased plasma concentrations of drugs extensively metabolized by this enzyme, such as nimodipine, should be expected with concurrent use of delavirdine.
    Desloratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Desogestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Dexbrompheniramine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Dexchlorpheniramine; Dextromethorphan; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Dexmedetomidine: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of dexmedetomidine and calcium-channel blockers could lead to additive hypotension and bradycardia; use together with caution. Dexmedetomidine can produce bradycardia or AV block and should be used cautiously in patients who are receiving antihypertensive drugs that may lower the heart rate such as calcium-channel blockers.
    Dextromethorphan; Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Dextromethorphan; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Diazoxide: (Moderate) Additive hypotensive effects can occur with the concomitant administration of diazoxide with other antihypertensive agents. This interaction can be therapeutically advantageous, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly. The manufacturer advises that IV diazoxide should not be administered to patients within 6 hours of receiving other antihypertensive agents.
    Diclofenac: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Diclofenac; Misoprostol: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Diethylpropion: (Major) Diethylpropion has vasopressor effects and may limit the benefit of calcium-channel blockers. Although leading drug interaction texts differ in the potential for an interaction between diethylpropion and this group of antihypertensive agents, these effects are likely to be clinically significant and have been described in hypertensive patients on these medications.
    Diflunisal: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Dihydrocodeine; Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Diphenhydramine; Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Diphenhydramine; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Diphenhydramine; Naproxen: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Diphenhydramine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Dorzolamide; Timolol: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Dronedarone: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate if coadministration with dronedarone is necessary. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and dronedarone is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Drospirenone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Levomefolate: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Duloxetine: (Moderate) Orthostatic hypotension and syncope have been reported during duloxetine administration. The concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents and duloxetine may increase the risk of hypotension. Monitor blood pressure if the combination is necessary.
    Dutasteride; Tamsulosin: (Moderate) The concomitant administration of tamsulosin with other antihypertensive agents can cause additive hypotensive effects. In addition, diltiazem, nicardipine, and verapamil may increase tamsulosin plasma concentrations via CYP3A4 inhibition. This interaction can be therapeutically advantageous, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly.
    Duvelisib: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate if coadministration with duvelisib is necessary. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and duvelisib is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Echinacea: (Moderate) Moderate and inducers of CYP3A4 may reduce the efficacy of nimodipine, although the magnitude of decrease in nimodipine plasma concentrations is not known. Echinacea is considered a moderate CYP3A4 inducer.
    Efavirenz: (Moderate) Use caution and careful monitoring when coadministering efavirenz with calcium-channel blockers; efavirenz induces CYP3A4, potentially altering serum concentrations of drugs metabolized by this enzyme such as some calcium-channel blockers. When coadministered, efavirenz decreases the concentrations of diltiazem (decrease in Cmax by 60%, in AUC by 69%, and in Cmin by 63%) and its active metabolites, desacetyl diltiazem and N-monodesmethyl diltiazem; dose adjustments should be made for diltiazem based on clinical response. No data are available regarding coadministration of efavirenz with other calcium channel blockers that are CYP3A4 substrates (e.g., felodipine, nicardipine, and verapamil); as with diltiazem, calcium-channel blocker doses should be adjusted based on clinical response.
    Efavirenz; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir: (Moderate) Use caution and careful monitoring when coadministering efavirenz with calcium-channel blockers; efavirenz induces CYP3A4, potentially altering serum concentrations of drugs metabolized by this enzyme such as some calcium-channel blockers. When coadministered, efavirenz decreases the concentrations of diltiazem (decrease in Cmax by 60%, in AUC by 69%, and in Cmin by 63%) and its active metabolites, desacetyl diltiazem and N-monodesmethyl diltiazem; dose adjustments should be made for diltiazem based on clinical response. No data are available regarding coadministration of efavirenz with other calcium channel blockers that are CYP3A4 substrates (e.g., felodipine, nicardipine, and verapamil); as with diltiazem, calcium-channel blocker doses should be adjusted based on clinical response.
    Efavirenz; Lamivudine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Moderate) Use caution and careful monitoring when coadministering efavirenz with calcium-channel blockers; efavirenz induces CYP3A4, potentially altering serum concentrations of drugs metabolized by this enzyme such as some calcium-channel blockers. When coadministered, efavirenz decreases the concentrations of diltiazem (decrease in Cmax by 60%, in AUC by 69%, and in Cmin by 63%) and its active metabolites, desacetyl diltiazem and N-monodesmethyl diltiazem; dose adjustments should be made for diltiazem based on clinical response. No data are available regarding coadministration of efavirenz with other calcium channel blockers that are CYP3A4 substrates (e.g., felodipine, nicardipine, and verapamil); as with diltiazem, calcium-channel blocker doses should be adjusted based on clinical response.
    Elbasvir; Grazoprevir: (Moderate) Administering nimodipine with elbasvir; grazoprevir may result in elevated nimodipine plasma concentrations. Nimodipine is a substrate of CYP3A; grazoprevir is a weak CYP3A inhibitor. If these drugs are used together, closely monitor for signs of adverse events.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Alafenamide: (Major) Avoid coadministration of nimodipine with cobicistat due to the risk of significant hypotension. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and cobicistat is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Elvitegravir; Cobicistat; Emtricitabine; Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate: (Major) Avoid coadministration of nimodipine with cobicistat due to the risk of significant hypotension. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and cobicistat is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Empagliflozin: (Moderate) Administer antidiabetic agents with caution in patients receiving calcium-channel blockers. These drugs may cause hyperglycemia leading to a temporary loss of glycemic control in patients receiving antidiabetic agents. Close observation and monitoring of blood glucose is necessary to maintain adequate glycemic control.
    Empagliflozin; Linagliptin: (Moderate) Administer antidiabetic agents with caution in patients receiving calcium-channel blockers. These drugs may cause hyperglycemia leading to a temporary loss of glycemic control in patients receiving antidiabetic agents. Close observation and monitoring of blood glucose is necessary to maintain adequate glycemic control.
    Empagliflozin; Linagliptin; Metformin: (Moderate) Administer antidiabetic agents with caution in patients receiving calcium-channel blockers. These drugs may cause hyperglycemia leading to a temporary loss of glycemic control in patients receiving antidiabetic agents. Close observation and monitoring of blood glucose is necessary to maintain adequate glycemic control.
    Empagliflozin; Metformin: (Moderate) Administer antidiabetic agents with caution in patients receiving calcium-channel blockers. These drugs may cause hyperglycemia leading to a temporary loss of glycemic control in patients receiving antidiabetic agents. Close observation and monitoring of blood glucose is necessary to maintain adequate glycemic control.
    Enflurane: (Major) The depression of cardiac contractility, conductivity, and automaticity as well as the vascular dilation associated with general anesthetics may be potentiated by calcium-channel blockers. Alternatively, general anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. When used concomitantly, anesthetics and calcium-channel blockers should be titrated carefully to avoid excessive cardiovascular depression.
    Enzalutamide: (Major) Avoid coadministration of nimodipine with enzalutamide due to decreased plasma concentrations of nimodipine. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and enzalutamide is a strong CYP3A4 inducer. Nimodipine plasma concentration and efficacy may be significantly reduced when concomitantly administered with strong CYP3A4 inducers.
    Ephedrine: (Major) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics, such as ephedrine, may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Blood pressure and heart rates should be monitored closely to confirm that the desired antihypertensive effect is achieved.
    Ephedrine; Guaifenesin: (Major) The cardiovascular effects of sympathomimetics, such as ephedrine, may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Blood pressure and heart rates should be monitored closely to confirm that the desired antihypertensive effect is achieved.
    Epinephrine: (Moderate) Antihypertensives, including calcium-channel blockers, antagonize the vasopressor effects of parenteral epinephrine.
    Epirubicin: (Moderate) Close cardiac monitoring is recommended throughout therapy in patients receiving concomitant therapy with epirubicin and calcium-channel blockers. Individuals receiving these medications together are at increased risk of developing heart failure.
    Eplerenone: (Moderate) Nimodipine can have additive hypotensive effects with other antihypertensive agents. This additive effect can be desirable, but the patient should be monitored carefully and the dosage should be adjusted based on clinical response.
    Epoprostenol: (Moderate) Calcium-channel blockers can have additive hypotensive effects with other antihypertensive agents. This additive effect can be desirable, but the patient should be monitored carefully and the dosage should be adjusted based on clinical response.
    Ergonovine: (Major) Because of its potential to cause coronary vasospasm, ergonovine could theoretically antagonize the therapeutic effects of anti-anginal agents including calcium-channel blockers. In addition, calcium-channel blockers with CYP3A4 inhibitory properties, such as diltiazem, nicardipine, and verapamil, may also reduce the hepatic metabolism of ergonovine and increase the risk of ergot toxicity.
    Erythromycin: (Major) Avoid administration of erythromycin and nimodipine, particularly in geriatric patients. Coadministration has been associated with an increased risk of hypotension and shock. Azithromycin may be preferred if the use of a macrolide antibiotic is necessary in a patient receiving nimodipine therapy. If coadministration is unavoidable, monitor blood pressure and heart rate. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and erythromycin is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Erythromycin; Sulfisoxazole: (Major) Avoid administration of erythromycin and nimodipine, particularly in geriatric patients. Coadministration has been associated with an increased risk of hypotension and shock. Azithromycin may be preferred if the use of a macrolide antibiotic is necessary in a patient receiving nimodipine therapy. If coadministration is unavoidable, monitor blood pressure and heart rate. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and erythromycin is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Esmolol: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Estradiol Cypionate; Medroxyprogesterone: (Minor) Estrogens can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients; patients who are receiving antihypertensive agents concurrently with hormone therapy should be monitored for antihypertensive effectiveness.
    Estradiol: (Minor) Estrogens can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients; patients who are receiving antihypertensive agents concurrently with hormone therapy should be monitored for antihypertensive effectiveness.
    Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Levonorgestrel; Folic Acid; Levomefolate: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norelgestromin: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone Acetate: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Ethinyl Estradiol; Norgestrel: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Ethynodiol Diacetate; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Etodolac: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Etomidate: (Major) The depression of cardiac contractility, conductivity, and automaticity as well as the vascular dilation associated with general anesthetics may be potentiated by calcium-channel blockers. Alternatively, general anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. When used concomitantly, anesthetics and calcium-channel blockers should be titrated carefully to avoid excessive cardiovascular depression.
    Etonogestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Everolimus: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and watch for an increase in nimodipine-related adverse reactions if coadministration with everolimus is necessary; consider reducing the dose of nimodipine if needed. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and everolimus is a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor; concomitant use may increase plasma concentrations of nimodipine.
    Famotidine; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Fedratinib: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate if coadministration with fedratinib is necessary. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and fedratinib is a moderate CYP3A inhibitor.
    Fenoprofen: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Fentanyl: (Moderate) Monitor patients for bradycardia and hypotension when fentanyl is coadministered with nimodipine. Fentanyl may cause bradycardia. The risk of significant hypotension and/or bradycardia during therapy with fentanyl is increased in patients receiving nimodipine.
    Fexofenadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Dietary Supplements): (Moderate) High doses of fish oil supplements may produce a blood pressure lowering effect. It is possible that additive reductions in blood pressure may be seen when fish oils are used in a patient already taking antihypertensive agents.
    Fluconazole: (Moderate) Fluconazole may decrease the clearance of calcium-channel blockers, including nimodipine, via inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism. Monitor blood pressure closely during concurrent use of these medications.
    Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Fluoxetine may decrease the clearance of calcium-channel blockers, including nimodipine, via inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism.
    Flurbiprofen: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Fosamprenavir: (Moderate) Anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are CYP3A4 inhibitors and may decrease the hepatic metabolism of nimodipine, leading to increased plasma concentrations of nimodipine. In addition, ritonavir and calcium channel blockers both prolong the PR interval and the manufacturer for ritonavir recommends caution during coadministration. Monitor therapeutic response and for adverse effects, such as hypotension. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Fospropofol: (Major) The depression of cardiac contractility, conductivity, and automaticity as well as the vascular dilation associated with general anesthetics may be potentiated by calcium-channel blockers. Alternatively, general anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. When used concomitantly, anesthetics and calcium-channel blockers should be titrated carefully to avoid excessive cardiovascular depression.
    Fostamatinib: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and watch for an increase in nimodipine-related adverse reactions if coadministration with fostamatinib is necessary; consider reducing the dose of nimodipine if needed. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and fostamatinib is a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor; concomitant use may increase plasma concentrations of nimodipine.
    General anesthetics: (Major) The depression of cardiac contractility, conductivity, and automaticity as well as the vascular dilation associated with general anesthetics may be potentiated by calcium-channel blockers. Alternatively, general anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. When used concomitantly, anesthetics and calcium-channel blockers should be titrated carefully to avoid excessive cardiovascular depression.
    Ginkgo, Ginkgo biloba: (Moderate) Ginkgo biloba appears to inhibit the metabolism of calcium-channel blockers, perhaps by inhibiting the CYP3A4 isoenzyme. A non-controlled pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers found that the concurrent administration of ginkgo with nifedipine resulted in a 53% increase in nifedipine peak concentrations. More study is needed regarding ginkgo's effects on CYP3A4 and whether clinically significant drug interactions result.
    Ginseng, Panax ginseng: (Moderate) Ginseng appears to inhibit the metabolism of calcium-channel blockers, perhaps by inhibiting the CYP3A4 isoenzyme. A non-controlled pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers found that the concurrent administration of ginseng with nifedipine resulted in a 30% increase in nifedipine peak concentrations. More study is needed regarding ginseng's effects on CYP3A4 and whether clinically significant drug interactions result.
    Grapefruit juice: (Major) Grapefruit juice contains compounds that inhibit the cytochrome P-450 CYP3A4 isozyme in the gut wall. Grapefruit juice can increase the serum concentrations and oral bioavailability of nimodipine. It is generally recommended to avoid grapefruit juice ingestion during nimodipine therapy.
    Guaifenesin; Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Guaifenesin; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Guaifenesin; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Halothane: (Major) The depression of cardiac contractility, conductivity, and automaticity as well as the vascular dilation associated with general anesthetics may be potentiated by calcium-channel blockers. Alternatively, general anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. When used concomitantly, anesthetics and calcium-channel blockers should be titrated carefully to avoid excessive cardiovascular depression.
    Hydantoins: (Moderate) Limited data suggest that nimodipine may potentiate the effects of phenytoin. Because fosphenytoin is metabolized to phenytoin, additive effects are possible with concomitant nimodipine and fosphenytoin therapy. In addition, in epileptic patients taking phenytoin, there is a 7-fold decrease in the AUC of nimodipine due to hepatic enzyme induction. Monitor closely for therapeutic effectiveness and toxicity of both drugs.
    Hydralazine; Isosorbide Dinitrate, ISDN: (Moderate) Nitroglycerin can cause hypotension. This action may be additive with other agents that can cause hypotension such as calcium-channel blockers. Patients should be monitored more closely for hypotension if nitroglycerin, including nitroglycerin rectal ointment, is used concurrently with a calcium-channel blocker.
    Hydrocodone; Ibuprofen: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Hydrocodone; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Hydrocodone; Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Hydrocodone; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Ibuprofen: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Ibuprofen; Oxycodone: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Ibuprofen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease. (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Idelalisib: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of idelalisib, a strong CYP3A inhibitor, with nimodipine, a CYP3A substrate, as nimodipine toxicities may be significantly increased. The AUC of a sensitive CYP3A substrate was increased 5.4-fold when coadministered with idelalisib.
    Iloperidone: (Moderate) Secondary to alpha-blockade, iloperidone can produce vasodilation that may result in additive effects during concurrent use with antihypertensive agents. The potential reduction in blood pressure can precipitate orthostatic hypotension and associated dizziness, tachycardia, and syncope. If concurrent use of iloperidone and antihypertensive agents is necessary, patients should be counseled on measures to prevent orthostatic hypotension, such as sitting on the edge of the bed for several minutes prior to standing in the morning and rising slowly from a seated position. Close monitoring of blood pressure is recommended until the full effects of the combination therapy are known.
    Iloprost: (Moderate) Calcium-channel blockers can have additive hypotensive effects with other antihypertensive agents. This additive effect can be desirable, but the patient should be monitored carefully and the dosage should be adjusted based on clinical response.
    Imatinib: (Moderate) Imatinib is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A4 and may increase concentrations of other drugs metabolized by this enzyme including nimodipine.
    Indinavir: (Moderate) Anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are CYP3A4 inhibitors and may decrease the hepatic metabolism of nimodipine, leading to increased plasma concentrations of nimodipine. In addition, ritonavir and calcium channel blockers both prolong the PR interval and the manufacturer for ritonavir recommends caution during coadministration. Monitor therapeutic response and for adverse effects, such as hypotension. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Indomethacin: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Intravenous Lipid Emulsions: (Moderate) High doses of fish oil supplements may produce a blood pressure lowering effect. It is possible that additive reductions in blood pressure may be seen when fish oils are used in a patient already taking antihypertensive agents.
    Isavuconazonium: (Moderate) Concomitant use of isavuconazonium with nimodipine may result in increased serum concentrations of nimodipine. Nimodipine is a substrate of the hepatic isoenzyme CYP3A4; isavuconazole, the active moiety of isavuconazonium, is a moderate inhibitor of this enzyme. Caution and close monitoring are advised if these drugs are used together.
    Isocarboxazid: (Moderate) Additive hypotensive effects may be seen when monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are combined with antihypertensives. Careful monitoring of blood pressure is suggested during concurrent therapy of MAOIs with calcium-channel blockers. Patients should be instructed to rise slowly from a sitting position, and to report syncope or changes in blood pressure or heart rate to their health care provider.
    Isoflurane: (Major) The depression of cardiac contractility, conductivity, and automaticity as well as the vascular dilation associated with general anesthetics may be potentiated by calcium-channel blockers. Alternatively, general anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. When used concomitantly, anesthetics and calcium-channel blockers should be titrated carefully to avoid excessive cardiovascular depression.
    Isoniazid, INH; Pyrazinamide, PZA; Rifampin: (Major) Rifampin is a potent hepatic enzyme inducer and has been shown to reduce the oral bioavailability of some calcium channel blockers. Patients should be monitored for loss of therapeutic effect if rifampin is added to nimodipine therapy.
    Isoniazid, INH; Rifampin: (Major) Rifampin is a potent hepatic enzyme inducer and has been shown to reduce the oral bioavailability of some calcium channel blockers. Patients should be monitored for loss of therapeutic effect if rifampin is added to nimodipine therapy.
    Isoproterenol: (Moderate) The pharmacologic effects of isoproterenol may cause an increase in blood pressure. If isoproterenol is used concomitantly with antihypertensives, the blood pressure should be monitored as the administration of isoproterenol can compromise the effectiveness of antihypertensive agents.
    Isosorbide Dinitrate, ISDN: (Moderate) Nitroglycerin can cause hypotension. This action may be additive with other agents that can cause hypotension such as calcium-channel blockers. Patients should be monitored more closely for hypotension if nitroglycerin, including nitroglycerin rectal ointment, is used concurrently with a calcium-channel blocker.
    Isosorbide Mononitrate: (Moderate) Nitroglycerin can cause hypotension. This action may be additive with other agents that can cause hypotension such as calcium-channel blockers. Patients should be monitored more closely for hypotension if nitroglycerin, including nitroglycerin rectal ointment, is used concurrently with a calcium-channel blocker.
    Istradefylline: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate if coadministration with istradefylline 40 mg daily is necessary. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate; istradefylline administered as 40 mg daily is a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor. There was no effect on drug exposure when istradefylline 20 mg daily was coadministered with a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate.
    Itraconazole: (Moderate) Calcium-channel blockers can have a negative inotropic effect that may be additive to those of itraconazole. In addition, itraconazole may increase nimodipine serum concentrations via inhibition of CYP3A4 with the potential for nimodipine toxicity. Edema has been reported in patients receiving concomitantly itraconazole and dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers; therefore, caution is recommended when administering these medications in combination. A dosage reduction of the calcium-channel blocker may be appropriate.
    Ketamine: (Major) The depression of cardiac contractility, conductivity, and automaticity as well as the vascular dilation associated with general anesthetics may be potentiated by calcium-channel blockers. Alternatively, general anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. When used concomitantly, anesthetics and calcium-channel blockers should be titrated carefully to avoid excessive cardiovascular depression.
    Ketoconazole: (Moderate) Ketoconazole may decrease the clearance of calcium-channel blockers, such as nimodipine, via inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism.
    Ketoprofen: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Ketorolac: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Labetalol: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Lacosamide: (Moderate) Use lacosamide with caution in patients taking concomitant medications that affect cardiac conduction, such as calcium-channel blockers, because of the risk of AV block, bradycardia, or ventricular tachyarrhythmia. If use together is necessary, obtain an ECG prior to lacosamide initiation and after treatment has been titrated to steady-state. In addition, monitor patients receiving lacosamide via the intravenous route closely.
    Lanreotide: (Moderate) Concomitant administration of bradycardia-inducing drugs (e.g., calcium-channel blockers) may have an additive effect on the reduction of heart rate associated with lanreotide. Adjust the calcium-channel blocker dose if necessary.
    Lansoprazole; Amoxicillin; Clarithromycin: (Major) Avoid coadministration of clarithromycin and nimodipine, particularly in geriatric patients, due to an increased risk of hypotension and acute kidney injury. If the use of a macrolide antibiotic is necessary in a patient receiving nimodipine therapy, azithromycin is the preferred agent. If coadministration is unavoidable, monitor blood pressure closely. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and clarithromycin is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor. A retrospective, case crossover study, found the risk of hospitalization due to hypotension or shock to be significantly increased in geriatric patients exposed to clarithromycin during concurrent calcium-channel blocker therapy (OR 3.7, 95% CI 2.3-6.1). Concurrent use of azithromycin was not associated with an increased risk of hypotension (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.8-2.8).
    Lansoprazole; Naproxen: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Lapatinib: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure if coadministration of nimodipine with lapatinib is necessary; a reduction of the nimodipine dose may be necessary. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and lapatinib is a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor. Coadministration with another weak CYP3A4 inhibitor increased mean peak nimodipine plasma concentrations by 50% and increased the mean AUC by 90%.
    Larotrectinib: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and watch for an increase in nimodipine-related adverse reactions if coadministration with larotrectinib is necessary; consider reducing the dose of nimodipine if needed. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and larotrectinib is a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor; concomitant use may increase plasma concentrations of nimodipine.
    Lasmiditan: (Moderate) Monitor heart rate if lasmiditan is coadministered with calcium-channel blockers as concurrent use may increase the risk for bradycardia. Lasmiditan has been associated with lowering of heart rate. In a drug interaction study, addition of a single 200 mg dose of lasmiditan to another heart rate lowering drug decreased heart rate by an additional 5 beats per minute.
    Lefamulin: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate if coadministration with oral lefamulin is necessary. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and oral lefamulin is a moderate CYP3A inhibitor; an interaction is not expected with intravenous lefamulin.
    Lesinurad: (Moderate) Lesinurad may decrease the systemic exposure and therapeutic efficacy of nimodipine; monitor for potential reduction in efficacy. Nimodipine is a CYP3A substrate, and lesinurad is a weak CYP3A inducer.
    Lesinurad; Allopurinol: (Moderate) Lesinurad may decrease the systemic exposure and therapeutic efficacy of nimodipine; monitor for potential reduction in efficacy. Nimodipine is a CYP3A substrate, and lesinurad is a weak CYP3A inducer.
    Letermovir: (Moderate) A clinically relevant increase in the plasma concentration of nimodipine may occur if given with letermovir. A nimodipine dose reduction may be necessary. Avoid this combination in patients who are also receiving treatment with cyclosporine because the magnitude of this interaction may be amplified. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate. Letermovir is a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor; however, when given with cyclosporine, the combined effect on CYP3A4 substrates may be similar to a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Levobetaxolol: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Levobunolol: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Levodopa: (Moderate) Concomitant use of antihypertensive agents with levodopa can result in additive hypotensive effects.
    Levoketoconazole: (Moderate) Ketoconazole may decrease the clearance of calcium-channel blockers, such as nimodipine, via inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism.
    Levonorgestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Levonorgestrel; Ethinyl Estradiol; Ferrous Bisglycinate: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Lidocaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Antihypertensives, including calcium-channel blockers, antagonize the vasopressor effects of parenteral epinephrine.
    Lisdexamfetamine: (Minor) Lisdexamfetamine might increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Lithium: (Moderate) Lithium neurotoxicity has been reported during co-administration of lithium and verapamil or diltiazem, and is possible during concurrent use of other calcium-channel blockers with lithium. Symptoms of toxicity have included ataxia, tremors, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and tinnitus. The interaction between verapamil and lithium is variable and unpredictable. Both decreased lithium concentrations and lithium toxicity have been reported after the addition of verapamil. The possibility of a loss of lithium's therapeutic effect due to lower serum lithium concentrations may be offset somewhat by the fact that calcium-channel blocking agents share some neuropharmacological actions with lithium; limited data suggest that oral verapamil is effective in controlling an acute manic episode either as a single agent or in combination with lithium. Regarding diltiazem, although neurotoxicity was reported after the addition of diltiazem, other drugs were administered concomitantly. Worsened psychosis has been reported with the combination of diltiazem and lithium. Until more data are available, diltiazem and verapamil should be used cautiously in patients receiving lithium.
    Lonafarnib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of nimodipine with lonafarnib due to the risk of significant hypotension. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and lonafarnib is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Lopinavir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are CYP3A4 inhibitors and may decrease the hepatic metabolism of nimodipine, leading to increased plasma concentrations of nimodipine. In addition, ritonavir and calcium channel blockers both prolong the PR interval and the manufacturer for ritonavir recommends caution during coadministration. Monitor therapeutic response and for adverse effects, such as hypotension. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Loratadine; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Lorlatinib: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased efficacy of nimodipine if coadministration with lorlatinib is necessary. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and lorlatinib is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer. Concomitant use may decrease plasma concentrations of nimodipine.
    Lovastatin; Niacin: (Moderate) Cutaneous vasodilation induced by niacin may become problematic if high-dose niacin is used concomitantly with other antihypertensive agents, especially calcium-channel blockers. This effect is of particular concern in the setting of acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or other acute hemodynamic compromise.
    Lumacaftor; Ivacaftor: (Major) Concomitant use of lumacaftor; ivacaftor and nimodipine should generally be avoided, as the systemic exposure and therapeutic efficacy of nimodipine may be significantly reduced. If coadministration is necessary, monitor patients closely and increase the nimodipine dosage as appropriate. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and lumacaftor is a strong CYP3A inducer.
    Maribavir: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate if coadministration with maribavir is necessary. Concurrent use may increase nimodipine exposure. Nimodipine is a CYP3A substrate and maribavir is a weak CYP3A inhibitor.
    Meclofenamate Sodium: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Mefenamic Acid: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Melatonin: (Moderate) Melatonin may impair the efficacy of some calcium-channel blockers, and caution is advised with concurrent use. In one placebo-controlled study, melatonin evening ingestion led to significant increases in blood pressure (6.5 mmHg systolic and 4.9 mmHg diastolic) and heart rate (3.9 bpm) throughout the day in patients taking nifedipine (GITS formulation). Melatonin appeared to antagonize the antihypertensive effects of nifedipine. The mechanism of this interaction is unclear. It may be prudent to avoid melatonin use during calcium-channel blocker therapy.
    Meloxicam: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Mephobarbital: (Major) In epileptic patients taking phenobarbital with or without other enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants, there is a 7-fold decrease in the AUC of nimodipine due to hepatic enzyme induction. Patients receiving barbiturates and nimodipine concomitantly should be monitored closely for efficacy. Although no data are available, it is likely that nimodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate, may be affected by the coadministration of all barbiturates.
    Mestranol; Norethindrone: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients; monitor patients receiving concurrent therapy to confirm that the desired antihypertensive effect is being obtained.
    Methamphetamine: (Minor) Amphetamines increase both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may counteract the activity of some antihypertensive agents, like calcium-channel blockers. Close monitoring of blood pressure is advised.
    Methohexital: (Major) In epileptic patients taking phenobarbital with or without other enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants, there is a 7-fold decrease in the AUC of nimodipine due to hepatic enzyme induction. Patients receiving barbiturates and nimodipine concomitantly should be monitored closely for efficacy. Although no data are available, it is likely that nimodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate, may be affected by the coadministration of all barbiturates.
    Methoxsalen: (Minor) Preclinical data suggest that calcium-channel blockers could decrease the efficacy of photosensitizing agents used in photodynamic therapy.
    Methylphenidate Derivatives: (Moderate) Periodic evaluation of blood pressure is advisable during concurrent use of methylphenidate derivatives and antihypertensive agents, particularly during initial coadministration and after dosage increases of methylphenidate derivatives. Methylphenidate derivatives can reduce the hypotensive effect of antihypertensive agents, including calcium-channel blockers.
    Methysergide: (Major) Because of the potential to cause coronary vasospasm , methysergide theoretically could antagonize the therapeutic effects of calcium-channel blockers. Clinicians should also note that calcium-channel blockers with CYP3A4 inhibitory properties, such as diltiazem, nicardipine, verapamil, may also reduce the hepatic metabolism of selected ergot alkaloids and increase the risk of ergot toxicity.
    Metoprolol: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Metoprolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Mifepristone: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and heart rate if coadministration of nimodipine with mifepristone is necessary. Concurrent use may result in elevated nimodipine concentrations. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and mifepristone is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Milrinone: (Moderate) Concurrent administration of antihypertensive agents could lead to additive hypotension when administered with milrinone. Titrate milrinone dosage according to hemodynamic response.
    Mitapivat: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased efficacy of nimodipine if coadministration with mitapivat is necessary as concomitant use may decrease plasma concentrations of nimodipine. Nimodipine is a CYP3A substrate and mitapivat is a weak CYP3A inducer.
    Mitotane: (Major) Avoid the concomitant use of mitotane with nimodipine; if coadministration cannot be avoided, monitor for decreased efficacy of nimodipine. Mitotane is a strong CYP3A4 inducer and nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate; coadministration may result in decreased plasma concentrations of nimodipine.
    Mobocertinib: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased efficacy of nimodipine if coadministration with mobocertinib is necessary as concomitant use may decrease plasma concentrations of nimodipine. Nimodipine is a CYP3A substrate and mobocertinib is a weak CYP3A inducer.
    Nabumetone: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Nadolol: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Naproxen: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Naproxen; Esomeprazole: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Naproxen; Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease. (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Nebivolol: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Nebivolol; Valsartan: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Nefazodone: (Moderate) Nefazodone is a CYP3A4 inhibitor which theoretically may decrease hepatic metabolism of nimodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Nelfinavir: (Moderate) Anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are CYP3A4 inhibitors and may decrease the hepatic metabolism of nimodipine, leading to increased plasma concentrations of nimodipine. In addition, ritonavir and calcium channel blockers both prolong the PR interval and the manufacturer for ritonavir recommends caution during coadministration. Monitor therapeutic response and for adverse effects, such as hypotension. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Nesiritide, BNP: (Major) The potential for hypotension may be increased when coadministering nesiritide with antihypertensive agents.
    Neuromuscular blockers: (Moderate) Concomitant use of neuromuscular blockers and calcium-channel blockers may prolong neuromuscular blockade.
    Nevirapine: (Minor) Nevirapine is an inducer of the cytochrome P4503A enzyme. Concomitant administration of nevirapine with drugs that are extensively metabolized by this enzyme, including calcium-channel blockers may require dosage adjustments.
    Niacin, Niacinamide: (Moderate) Cutaneous vasodilation induced by niacin may become problematic if high-dose niacin is used concomitantly with other antihypertensive agents, especially calcium-channel blockers. This effect is of particular concern in the setting of acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or other acute hemodynamic compromise.
    Niacin; Simvastatin: (Moderate) Cutaneous vasodilation induced by niacin may become problematic if high-dose niacin is used concomitantly with other antihypertensive agents, especially calcium-channel blockers. This effect is of particular concern in the setting of acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or other acute hemodynamic compromise.
    Nirmatrelvir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are CYP3A4 inhibitors and may decrease the hepatic metabolism of nimodipine, leading to increased plasma concentrations of nimodipine. In addition, ritonavir and calcium channel blockers both prolong the PR interval and the manufacturer for ritonavir recommends caution during coadministration. Monitor therapeutic response and for adverse effects, such as hypotension. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Nitrates: (Moderate) Nitroglycerin can cause hypotension. This action may be additive with other agents that can cause hypotension such as calcium-channel blockers. Patients should be monitored more closely for hypotension if nitroglycerin, including nitroglycerin rectal ointment, is used concurrently with a calcium-channel blocker.
    Nitroglycerin: (Moderate) Nitroglycerin can cause hypotension. This action may be additive with other agents that can cause hypotension such as calcium-channel blockers. Patients should be monitored more closely for hypotension if nitroglycerin, including nitroglycerin rectal ointment, is used concurrently with a calcium-channel blocker.
    Nitroprusside: (Moderate) Additive hypotensive effects may occur when nitroprusside is used concomitantly with other antihypertensive agents. Dosages should be adjusted carefully, according to blood pressure.
    Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Norethindrone Acetate; Ethinyl Estradiol; Ferrous fumarate: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Norethindrone; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Norethindrone; Ethinyl Estradiol; Ferrous fumarate: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Norgestimate; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Octreotide: (Moderate) Dose adjustments in drugs such as beta-blockers and calcium-channel blockers which cause bradycardia and/or affect cardiac conduction may be necessary during octreotide therapy due to additive effects.
    Odevixibat: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased efficacy of nimodipine if coadministration with odevixibat is necessary as concomitant use may decrease plasma concentrations of nimodipine. Nimodipine is a CYP3A substrate and odevixibat is a weak CYP3A inducer.
    Olanzapine: (Moderate) Olanzapine may induce orthostatic hypotension and thus enhance the effects of antihypertensive agents.
    Olanzapine; Fluoxetine: (Moderate) Fluoxetine may decrease the clearance of calcium-channel blockers, including nimodipine, via inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism. (Moderate) Olanzapine may induce orthostatic hypotension and thus enhance the effects of antihypertensive agents.
    Olanzapine; Samidorphan: (Moderate) Olanzapine may induce orthostatic hypotension and thus enhance the effects of antihypertensive agents.
    Ombitasvir; Paritaprevir; Ritonavir: (Moderate) Anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are CYP3A4 inhibitors and may decrease the hepatic metabolism of nimodipine, leading to increased plasma concentrations of nimodipine. In addition, ritonavir and calcium channel blockers both prolong the PR interval and the manufacturer for ritonavir recommends caution during coadministration. Monitor therapeutic response and for adverse effects, such as hypotension. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Omeprazole; Amoxicillin; Rifabutin: (Moderate) Rifabutin may induce the CYP3A4 metabolism of calcium-channel blockers such as nimodipine and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. The dosage requirements of nimodipine may be increased in patients receiving concurrent enzyme inducers.
    Oritavancin: (Moderate) Nimodipine is metabolized by CYP3A4; oritavancin is a weak CYP3A4 inducer. Plasma concentrations and efficacy of nimodipine may be reduced if these drugs are administered concurrently.
    Osilodrostat: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate if coadministration with osilodrostat is necessary. Concurrent use may increase nimodipine exposure. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and osilodrostat is a weak CYP3A inhibitor.
    Oxaprozin: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Oxymetazoline: (Major) The vasoconstricting actions of oxymetazoline, an alpha adrenergic agonist, may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. If these drugs are used together, closely monitor for changes in blood pressure.
    Pacritinib: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate if coadministration with pacritinib is necessary. Concurrent use may increase nimodipine exposure. Nimodipine is a CYP3A substrate and pacritinib is a weak CYP3A inhibitor.
    Palbociclib: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure if coadministration of nimodipine with palbociclib is necessary; a reduction of the nimodipine dose may be necessary. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and palbociclib is a weak, time-dependent CYP3A4 inhibitor. Coadministration with another weak CYP3A4 inhibitor increased mean peak nimodipine plasma concentrations by 50% and increased the mean AUC by 90%.
    Paliperidone: (Moderate) Paliperidone may cause orthostatic hypotension, thereby enhancing the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. Orthostatic vital signs should be monitored in patients receiving paliperidone and calcium-channel blockers who are susceptible to hypotension.
    Pasireotide: (Major) Pasireotide may cause a decrease in heart rate. Closely monitor patients who are also taking drugs associated with bradycardia such as calcium-channel blockers. Dose adjustments of calcium-channel blockers may be necessary.
    Pazopanib: (Moderate) Pazopanib is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4. Coadministration of pazopanib and nimodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate, may cause an increase in systemic concentrations of nimodipine. Use caution when administering these drugs concomitantly.
    Penbutolol: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Pentobarbital: (Major) In epileptic patients taking phenobarbital with or without other enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants, there is a 7-fold decrease in the AUC of nimodipine due to hepatic enzyme induction. Patients receiving barbiturates and nimodipine concomitantly should be monitored closely for efficacy. Although no data are available, it is likely that nimodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate, may be affected by the coadministration of all barbiturates.
    Pentoxifylline: (Moderate) Pentoxifylline has been used concurrently with antihypertensive drugs (beta blockers, diuretics) without observed problems. Small decreases in blood pressure have been observed in some patients treated with pentoxifylline; periodic systemic blood pressure monitoring is recommended for patients receiving concomitant antihypertensives. If indicated, dosage of the antihypertensive agents should be reduced.
    Pexidartinib: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased efficacy of nimodipine if coadministration with pexidartinib is necessary as concomitant use may decrease plasma concentrations of nimodipine. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and pexidartinib is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer.
    Phenelzine: (Moderate) Additive hypotensive effects may be seen when monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are combined with antihypertensives. Careful monitoring of blood pressure is suggested during concurrent therapy of MAOIs with calcium-channel blockers. Patients should be instructed to rise slowly from a sitting position, and to report syncope or changes in blood pressure or heart rate to their health care provider.
    Phenobarbital: (Major) In epileptic patients taking phenobarbital with or without other enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants, there is a 7-fold decrease in the AUC of nimodipine due to hepatic enzyme induction. Patients receiving barbiturates and nimodipine concomitantly should be monitored closely for efficacy. Although no data are available, it is likely that nimodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate, may be affected by the coadministration of all barbiturates.
    Phenobarbital; Hyoscyamine; Atropine; Scopolamine: (Major) In epileptic patients taking phenobarbital with or without other enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants, there is a 7-fold decrease in the AUC of nimodipine due to hepatic enzyme induction. Patients receiving barbiturates and nimodipine concomitantly should be monitored closely for efficacy. Although no data are available, it is likely that nimodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate, may be affected by the coadministration of all barbiturates.
    Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Photosensitizing agents (topical): (Minor) Preclinical data suggest that calcium-channel blockers could decrease the efficacy of photosensitizing agents used in photodynamic therapy.
    Pindolol: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Piroxicam: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Posaconazole: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and heart rate if coadministration of nimodipine with posaconazole is necessary. Concurrent use may result in elevated nimodipine concentrations. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and posaconazole is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Prazosin: (Moderate) Prazosin is well-known to produce a 'first-dose' phenomenon. Some patients develop significant hypotension shortly after administration of the first dose. The first dose response (acute postural hypotension) of prazosin may be exaggerated in patients who are receiving beta-adrenergic blockers, diuretics, or other antihypertensive agents. Concomitant administration of prazosin with other antihypertensive agents is not prohibited, however. This can be therapeutically advantageous, but lower dosages of each agent should be used. The use of alpha-blockers with verapamil can lead to excessive hypotension; In addition, verapamil has been reported to increase the AUC and Cmax of prazosin.
    Prilocaine; Epinephrine: (Moderate) Antihypertensives, including calcium-channel blockers, antagonize the vasopressor effects of parenteral epinephrine.
    Primidone: (Major) In epileptic patients taking phenobarbital with or without other enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants, there is a 7-fold decrease in the AUC of nimodipine due to hepatic enzyme induction. Patients receiving barbiturates and nimodipine concomitantly should be monitored closely for efficacy. Although no data are available, it is likely that nimodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate, may be affected by the coadministration of all barbiturates.
    Procainamide: (Moderate) Procainamide can decrease blood pressure and should be used cautiously in patients receiving antihypertensive agents. Intravenous administration of procainamide is more likely to cause hypotensive effects.
    Procaine: (Moderate) Local anesthetics may cause additive hypotension in combination with antihypertensive agents.
    Promethazine; Phenylephrine: (Moderate) Phenylephrine's cardiovascular effects may reduce the antihypertensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. Well-controlled hypertensive patients receiving decongestant sympathomimetics at recommended doses do not appear to be at high risk for significant elevations in blood pressure; however, increased blood pressure (especially systolic hypertension) has been reported in some patients.
    Propofol: (Major) The depression of cardiac contractility, conductivity, and automaticity as well as the vascular dilation associated with general anesthetics may be potentiated by calcium-channel blockers. Alternatively, general anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. When used concomitantly, anesthetics and calcium-channel blockers should be titrated carefully to avoid excessive cardiovascular depression.
    Propranolol: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Propranolol; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Protease inhibitors: (Moderate) Anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are CYP3A4 inhibitors and may decrease the hepatic metabolism of nimodipine, leading to increased plasma concentrations of nimodipine. In addition, ritonavir and calcium channel blockers both prolong the PR interval and the manufacturer for ritonavir recommends caution during coadministration. Monitor therapeutic response and for adverse effects, such as hypotension. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Pseudoephedrine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Pseudoephedrine; Triprolidine: (Moderate) The cardiovascular effects of pseudoephedrine may reduce the antihypertensive effects produced by calcium-channel blockers. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate.
    Rasagiline: (Moderate) Additive hypotensive effects may be seen when monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are combined with antihypertensives. Careful monitoring of blood pressure is suggested during concurrent therapy of MAOIs with calcium-channel blockers. Patients should be instructed to rise slowly from a sitting position, and to report syncope or changes in blood pressure or heart rate to their health care provider during concurrent use of an MAOI and a calcium-channel blocker.
    Remifentanil: (Moderate) The risk of significant hypotension and/or bradycardia during therapy with remifentanil may be increased in patients receiving calcium-channel blockers due to additive hypotensive effects.
    Ribociclib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of nimodipine with ribociclib due to the risk of significant hypotension. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and ribociclib is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Ribociclib; Letrozole: (Major) Avoid coadministration of nimodipine with ribociclib due to the risk of significant hypotension. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and ribociclib is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Rifabutin: (Moderate) Rifabutin may induce the CYP3A4 metabolism of calcium-channel blockers such as nimodipine and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. The dosage requirements of nimodipine may be increased in patients receiving concurrent enzyme inducers.
    Rifampin: (Major) Rifampin is a potent hepatic enzyme inducer and has been shown to reduce the oral bioavailability of some calcium channel blockers. Patients should be monitored for loss of therapeutic effect if rifampin is added to nimodipine therapy.
    Rifapentine: (Major) Avoid coadministration of nimodipine and rifapentine due to the risk of decreased nimodipine exposure which may reduce its efficacy. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and rifapentine is a strong CYP3A4 inducer.
    Risperidone: (Moderate) Risperidone has been associated with orthostatic hypotension and may enhance the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. Clinically significant hypotension has been observed with concomitant use of risperidone and antihypertensive medications. Lower initial doses or slower dose titration of risperidone may be necessary in patients receiving antihypertensive agents concomitantly.
    Ritonavir: (Moderate) Anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are CYP3A4 inhibitors and may decrease the hepatic metabolism of nimodipine, leading to increased plasma concentrations of nimodipine. In addition, ritonavir and calcium channel blockers both prolong the PR interval and the manufacturer for ritonavir recommends caution during coadministration. Monitor therapeutic response and for adverse effects, such as hypotension. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Rofecoxib: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Rucaparib: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure if coadministration of nimodipine with rucaparib is necessary; a reduction of the nimodipine dose may be necessary. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and rucaparib is a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor. Coadministration with another weak CYP3A4 inhibitor increased mean peak nimodipine plasma concentrations by 50% and increased the mean AUC by 90%.
    Saquinavir: (Moderate) Anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are CYP3A4 inhibitors and may decrease the hepatic metabolism of nimodipine, leading to increased plasma concentrations of nimodipine. In addition, ritonavir and calcium channel blockers both prolong the PR interval and the manufacturer for ritonavir recommends caution during coadministration. Monitor therapeutic response and for adverse effects, such as hypotension. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Secobarbital: (Major) In epileptic patients taking phenobarbital with or without other enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants, there is a 7-fold decrease in the AUC of nimodipine due to hepatic enzyme induction. Patients receiving barbiturates and nimodipine concomitantly should be monitored closely for efficacy. Although no data are available, it is likely that nimodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate, may be affected by the coadministration of all barbiturates.
    Segesterone Acetate; Ethinyl Estradiol: (Minor) Estrogen containing oral contraceptives can induce fluid retention and may increase blood pressure in some patients.
    Selpercatinib: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate if coadministration with selpercatinib is necessary. Concurrent use may increase nimodipine exposure. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and selpercatinib is a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Sevoflurane: (Major) The depression of cardiac contractility, conductivity, and automaticity as well as the vascular dilation associated with general anesthetics may be potentiated by calcium-channel blockers. Alternatively, general anesthetics can potentiate the hypotensive effects of calcium-channel blockers. When used concomitantly, anesthetics and calcium-channel blockers should be titrated carefully to avoid excessive cardiovascular depression.
    Silodosin: (Moderate) Monitor for adverse effects if silodosin is coadministered with nimodipine. The incidence of dizziness and orthostatic hypotension were increased in patients also receiving antihypertensive medications in clinical trials.
    Simeprevir: (Moderate) Simeprevir, a mild intestinal CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the side effects of nimodipine, which is a CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor patients for adverse effects of nimodipine, such as hypotension.
    Sincalide: (Moderate) Sincalide-induced gallbladder ejection fraction may be affected by calcium-channel blockers. False study results are possible in patients with drug-induced hyper- or hypo-responsiveness; thorough patient history is important in the interpretation of results.
    Sotalol: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Sotorasib: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased efficacy of nimodipine if coadministration with sotorasib is necessary as concomitant use may decrease plasma concentrations of nimodipine. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and sotorasib is a moderate CYP3A4 inducer.
    Spironolactone: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate if coadministration with spironolactone is necessary. Concurrent use may increase nimodipine exposure. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and spironolactone is a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Spironolactone; Hydrochlorothiazide, HCTZ: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate if coadministration with spironolactone is necessary. Concurrent use may increase nimodipine exposure. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and spironolactone is a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    St. John's Wort, Hypericum perforatum: (Major) St. John's wort appears to induce the metabolism of the calcium-channel blockers, such as nimodipine, apparently by the induction of the CYP3A4 isoenzyme leading to reduced clinical efficacy. The metabolism of calcium channel blockers may also be increased.
    Streptogramins: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and watch for an increase in nimodipine-related adverse reactions if coadministration with dalfopristin; quinupristin is necessary; consider reducing the dose of nimodipine if needed. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and dalfopristin; quinupristin is a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor; concomitant use may increase plasma concentrations of nimodipine.
    Sufentanil: (Moderate) Monitor patients for bradycardia and hypotension when sufentanil is coadministered with nimodipine. Sufentanil may cause bradycardia. The risk of significant hypotension and/or bradycardia during therapy with sufentanil is increased in patients receiving nimodipine.
    Sulindac: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Sumatriptan; Naproxen: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Tamsulosin: (Moderate) The concomitant administration of tamsulosin with other antihypertensive agents can cause additive hypotensive effects. In addition, diltiazem, nicardipine, and verapamil may increase tamsulosin plasma concentrations via CYP3A4 inhibition. This interaction can be therapeutically advantageous, but dosages must be adjusted accordingly.
    Tazemetostat: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased efficacy of nimodipine if coadministration with tazemetostat is necessary as concomitant use may decrease plasma concentrations of nimodipine. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and tazemetostat is a weak CYP3A4 inducer.
    Telithromycin: (Moderate) Serious adverse events, including hypotension, have been reported in patients taking telithromycin concomitantly with calcium channel blockers metabolized by the cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 isoenzyme, such as nimodipine. Telithromycin is a substrate and inhibitor of the CYP3A4 isozyme. Concurrent administration may result in increased serum concentrations of the calcium channel blocker and increased risk for adverse events.
    Telotristat Ethyl: (Moderate) Monitor for decreased efficacy of nimodipine if coadministration with telotristat is necessary as concomitant use may decrease plasma concentrations of nimodipine. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and telotristat is a weak CYP3A4 inducer.
    Temsirolimus: (Moderate) Monitor for signs and symptoms of angioedema if temsirolimus is administered concomitantly with nimodipine. Angioedema has been reported in patients taking mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors in combination with another calcium channel blocker.
    Tetrabenazine: (Moderate) Tetrabenazine may induce orthostatic hypotension and thus enhance the hypotensive effects of antihypertensive agents. Lower initial doses or slower dose titration of tetrabenazine may be necessary in patients receiving antihypertensive agents concomitantly.
    Tetracaine: (Moderate) Local anesthetics may cause additive hypotension in combination with antihypertensive agents. Use extreme caution with the concomitant use of tetracaine and antihypertensive agents.
    Thalidomide: (Moderate) Thalidomide and other agents that slow cardiac conduction such as calcium-channel blockers should be used cautiously due to the potential for additive bradycardia.
    Thiopental: (Major) In epileptic patients taking phenobarbital with or without other enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants, there is a 7-fold decrease in the AUC of nimodipine due to hepatic enzyme induction. Patients receiving barbiturates and nimodipine concomitantly should be monitored closely for efficacy. Although no data are available, it is likely that nimodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate, may be affected by the coadministration of all barbiturates.
    Thiothixene: (Moderate) Thiothixene should be used cautiously in patients receiving antihypertensive agents. Additive hypotensive effects are possible.
    Timolol: (Moderate) Nimodipine, a selective calcium-channel blocker, can enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers. Although often used together, concurrent use of calcium-channel blockers and beta-blockers may result in additive hypotensive, negative inotropic, and/or bradycardic effects in some patients.
    Tipranavir: (Moderate) Anti-retroviral protease inhibitors are CYP3A4 inhibitors and may decrease the hepatic metabolism of nimodipine, leading to increased plasma concentrations of nimodipine. In addition, ritonavir and calcium channel blockers both prolong the PR interval and the manufacturer for ritonavir recommends caution during coadministration. Monitor therapeutic response and for adverse effects, such as hypotension. Decreased calcium-channel blocker doses may be warranted.
    Tolmetin: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Tranylcypromine: (Major) Avoid concomitant use of calcium-channel blockers and tranylcypromine due to the risk of additive hypotension. Potential for this interaction persists for up to 10 days after discontinuation of tranylcypromine (or 4 to 5 half-lives after discontinuation of the calcium-channel blocker). If a medication-free interval is not feasible, initiate therapy at the lowest appropriate dose and monitor blood pressure closely.
    Trazodone: (Minor) Due to additive hypotensive effects, patients receiving antihypertensive agents concurrently with trazodone may have excessive hypotension. Decreased dosage of the antihypertensive agent may be required when given with trazodone.
    Treprostinil: (Moderate) Calcium-channel blockers can have additive hypotensive effects with other antihypertensive agents. This additive effect can be desirable, but the patient should be monitored carefully and the dosage should be adjusted based on clinical response.
    Tucatinib: (Major) Avoid coadministration of nimodipine with tucatinib due to the risk of significant hypotension. If concomitant use is unavoidable, monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and tucatinib is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Valdecoxib: (Moderate) If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and an antihypertensive drug are concurrently used, carefully monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of renal insufficiency and blood pressure control. Doses of antihypertensive medications may require adjustment in patients receiving concurrent NSAIDs. NSAIDs, to varying degrees, have been associated with an elevation in blood pressure. This effect is most significant in patients receiving concurrent antihypertensive agents and long-term NSAID therapy. NSAIDs cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation, which may result in a reduction in renal blood flow leading to renal insufficiency and an increase in blood pressure that are often accompanied by peripheral edema and weight gain. Patients who rely upon renal prostaglandins to maintain renal perfusion may have acute renal blood flow reduction with NSAID usage. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of adverse effects from combined long-term NSAID therapy and antihypertensive agents, especially diuretics, due to age-related decreases in renal function and an increased risk of stroke and coronary artery disease.
    Valproic Acid, Divalproex Sodium: (Moderate) Limited data suggest that nimodipine may potentiate the effects of valproic acid. In epileptic patients taking valproic acid, there is a 50% increase in the AUC of nimodipine. Patients receiving valproic acid, divalproex sodium and nimodipine concomitantly should be monitored closely for valproic acid or nimodipine-related side effects. Doses should be adjusted accordingly.
    Vemurafenib: (Moderate) Vemurafenib is an inducer of CYP3A4 and decreased plasma concentrations of drugs metabolized by this enzyme, such as nimodipine, could be expected with concurrent use. Use caution, and monitor therapeutic effects of nimodipine when coadministered with vemurafenib.
    Verteporfin: (Moderate) Use caution if coadministration of verteporfin with calcium channel blockers is necessary due to the risk of increased photosensitivity. Verteporfin is a light-activated drug used in photodynamic therapy; all patients treated with verteporfin will be photosensitive. Concomitant use with calcium channel blockers could enhance the rate of verteporfin uptake by the vascular endothelium, resulting in enhanced photosensitivity.
    Viloxazine: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate if coadministration with viloxazine is necessary. Concurrent use may increase nimodipine exposure. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and viloxazine is a weak CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Voriconazole: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and heart rate if coadministration of nimodipine with voriconazole is necessary. Concurrent use may result in elevated nimodipine concentrations. Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate and voriconazole is a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor.
    Voxelotor: (Moderate) Monitor blood pressure and reduce the dose of nimodipine as clinically appropriate if coadministration with voxelotor is necessary. Concurrent use may increase nimodipine exposure. Nimodipine is a CYP3A substrate and voxelotor is a moderate CYP3A inhibitor.
    Yohimbine: (Moderate) Yohimbine (a selective central alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist) can increase blood pressure, and therefore can antagonize the therapeutic action of antihypertensive drugs in general. One study in patients with essential hypertension (n = 25) reported an average rise of 5 mmHg in mean blood pressure and a 66% increase in plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentrations following yohimbine administration (4 x 5.4 mg tablets PO). Use with particular caution in hypertensive patients with high or uncontrolled BP.
    Zafirlukast: (Minor) Zafirlukast is a CYP3A4 inhibitor which theoretically may decrease hepatic metabolism of nimodipine, a CYP3A4 substrate.
    Ziprasidone: (Minor) Ziprasidone is a moderate antagonist of alpha-1 receptors and may cause orthostatic hypotension with or without tachycardia, dizziness, or syncope. Additive hypotensive effects are possible if ziprasidone is used concurrently with antihypertensive agents.

    PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Pregnancy

    There are no adequate and well-controlled studies on the developmental risks associated with the use of nimodipine during pregnancy. Nimodipine has been found to cross the placenta. In animal studies involving pregnant rats and rabbits that received doses equivalent to (rats) or less than (rabbits) those used clinically in humans, nimodipine was associated with embryofetal mortality, increased incidences of fetal structural abnormalities, and decreased fetal growth.

    There is limited data on the effects of nimodipine on the breastfed infant or milk production. Nimodipine and its metabolites have been shown to appear in human milk. Two case reports describe the use of nimodipine in breast-feeding mothers. Based on this limited data, it is estimated that a nursing infant would receive less than 1% of the mother's weight-adjusted dosage of nimodipine. The American Academy of Pediatrics considers nifedipine, another calcium-channel blocker, to be usually compatible with breast-feeding. Consider the benefits of breast-feeding, the risk of potential infant drug exposure, and the risk of an untreated or inadequately treated condition. If a breast-feeding infant experiences an adverse effect related to a maternally ingested drug, healthcare providers are encouraged to report the adverse effect to the FDA.

    MECHANISM OF ACTION

    Mechanism of Action: Like other calcium-channel antagonists, nimodipine inhibits the influx of extracellular calcium through myocardial and vascular membrane pores that are selective for specific ions. Serum calcium levels remain unchanged. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, it is believed that nimodipine inhibits this influx by binding to specific receptors on the cell membrane in or near the calcium channel, which causes a conformational change in the channel, making it unavailable for opening. The decrease in intracellular calcium inhibits the contractile processes of smooth muscle cells, causing dilation of the arteries and increased oxygen delivery to the area being supplied.While verapamil and diltiazem exert balanced effects on calcium channels in the SA node, AV node, and vasculature, nimodipine and other members of the dihydropyridine group predominantly act on the vasculature, making these agents potent peripheral vasodilators. Specifically, at therapeutic doses, nimodipine preferentially acts on the vasculature of the central nervous system, with minimal effects on other arteries in the body. This activity is believed to be due to nimodipine's lipophilic properties, and it gives rise to its use in patients with SAH to prevent neurologic deficits that occur during or following cerebral vasospasm and in patients with migraine.† Arteriographic evidence, however, does not exist to show that it prevents or relieves vasospasm of cerebral arteries.

    PHARMACOKINETICS

    Nimodipine is administered orally or via nasogastric or gastric tube. It is distributed into all body tissues following oral administration. It crosses the placenta and, along with its metabolites, is excreted into breast milk. Hepatic metabolism results in inactive compounds that, along with unchanged drug, are excreted in the urine. The terminal elimination half-life is approximately 8—9 hours.
     
    Affected cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and drug transporters: CYP3A4
    Nimodipine is a CYP3A4 substrate , and its metabolism may theoretically be affected by CYP3A4 inhibitors or inducers.

    Oral Route

    Nimodipine is rapidly absorbed following an oral dose but undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism, resulting in a low and variable bioavailability. Administration of nimodipine capsules following a standard breakfast results in a 68% lower peak plasma concentration and 38% lower bioavailability relative to dosing under fasted conditions. In patients with hepatic disease a resulting decrease in first-pass effect may increase nimodipine bioavailability. Oral nimodipine must be dosed frequently (e.g., every 4 hours) due to the initial rapid decline in plasma concentrations (early half-life of about 1—2 hours).